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Candidates preparing for their CSIR NET exam might need to get some short study notes and strategies to apply while preparing for the key exam of their life. At this point, We at BYJU'S Exam Prep come up with short notes on Bioinorganic chemistry, which comes under the Inorganic Chemistry section of the Chemical Science syllabus. Biоinоrgаniс сhemistry is the study оf the struсtures аnd biоlоgiсаl funсtiоns оf inоrgаniс biоlоgiсаl substаnсes, thаt is, thоse nоt соntаining саrbоn, suсh аs metаls.
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Biological reactions are those reactions that involve metal ions. These metals are considered essential elements. Therefore, the study of bioinorganic chemistry helps to determine the function of metals in the biological system.
There are various factors involved in this chemistry. These are:
- It helps to study the naturally occurring inorganic elements.
- Determines structure and function of biomolecules.
- Determines toxicity of inorganic species.
Role of metal ions in various Biological Processes:
- Fe and Cu act as electron carrier.
Fe: Cytochrome; Cu: Blue Copper Protein
- Fe and Zn act as a metal storage compound.
Fe: Transferrin, Ferritin; Zn: Metallothionein
- Fe and Cu act as oxygen transportation agent.
Fe: Haemoglobin, Myoglobin; Cu: Hemocyanin
- Mg is an important part of photosynthesis.
- Zn and Mg in hydrolase.
Zn: Carboxypeptidase; Mg: Aminopeptidase
- Fe and Mo in oxidoreductase.
Fe: Oxygenase, Hydrogenase; Mo: Nitrogenase
- Fe and Co in isomerase.
Fe: Aconitase; Co: B12 Coenzyme
These are classified into two categories:
- Bulk elements: These are required by living organisms in larger quantities. Ex- H, N, P, S, Mg, Ca, Cl.
- Trace elements: These are required by living organisms in minor quantities. Ex- Co, Cr, V, Ni, As, Fe, Cu.
Toxicity of some Elements:
- Cr is highly toxic in the +6 oxidation state. It is carcinogenic.
- The deficiency of iodine can cause goitre.
- The deficiency of Co in soil affects the grazing animals very badly.
- Excess of Ca leads to hardening of arteries and cataracts in the eyes.
- Excess intake of Na leads to hypertension.
- Deficiency of Zn leads to diarrhoea, hair loss, skin rashes.
- Cu can accumulate in the liver and kidney that can damage them.
- Deficiency of Fe leads to Anaemia.
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