Revision Notes for Chemical Science: Hofmann Bromamide Degradation! (Download PDF)

By Renuka Miglani|Updated : December 20th, 2021

Hello Aspirants,

Are you looking for some short and reliable notes during your CSIR-NET preparations? Then, you have come to a perfect place!

Candidates preparing for their CSIR NET exam might need to get some short study notes and strategies to apply while preparing for the key exam of their life. At this point, We at Byjus Exam Prep come up with short notes on the Hofmann Bromamide Degradation, which comes under the Organic Chemistry section of the Chemical Science syllabus. 

Our experienced subject matter experts have meticulously designed this set of short notes on the Hofmann Bromamide Degradation to give you the most standard set of study materials to be focused upon. In this cut-throat competitive world, students need to prepare themselves with the best study materials to help them learn and for their future. So, here we are offering the best study notes that are reliable and can be used by the students during their preparations for the upcoming CSIR-NET 2021-22 exam.

Hofmann Bromamide Degradation (Download PDF)

Hofmann Bromamide degradation is also known as Hofmann degradation or Hofmann rearrangement. It is different from the Hofmann elimination reaction. This is the organic reaction in which amide is treated with bromine in an aqueous or ethanolic solution of sodium hydroxide to give primary amine. 

In this reaction, the amide is degraded to a primary amine. Thus, this reaction is used to form primary Amines. An important characteristic of this reaction is that amine with one carbon less than those present in amide is formed. 

This reaction undergoes molecular rearrangement that involves the migration of an alkyl or aryl group from the carbonyl carbon to the adjacent nitrogen atom.

In this reaction, halogen is used – Bromine (Br2) or Chlorine (Cl2)

The medium used is a strongly basic (NaOH or KOH) aqueous medium.

General Reaction - 


Reaction Mechanism - 

Step 1: Base attacks amide deprotonating it and generating anion.

Step 2: Anion reacts with Br2​ forming bromoamide.

Step 3: Deprotonation of bromoamide occurs forming bromoamide anion which undergoes rearrangement forming isocyanate.

Step 4: Isocyanate forms carbamic acid by the addition of H2​O molecules.

Step 5: Decarboxylation of carbamic acid occurs forming primary amine.


Example -


Mechanism of this Reaction -



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