Irrigation: Must Know Concept for NABARD Grade A Exam 2023

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: September 11th, 2023

“Irrigation” is a very important chapter of the Agriculture and Rural Development section of the NABARD Grade A Exam. You must know the types of irrigation, objectives, and importance of irrigation.

Today, we will discuss some of the basic terms and methods of irrigation in this chapter. Read this post now to enhance your NABARD Grade A Exam preparation!

What is Irrigation?

Irrigation is the artificial application of water to soil to supplement rainfall for production. Irrigation provides a favorable environment for higher crop growth and yield.

Different methods are used to apply irrigation water to the crop depending on the land slope amount of water and equipment available, the crop, and the method of cultivation of crops. The various methods of irrigation are given below.

Irrigation: Must Know Concept for NABARD Grade A Exam 2023

Methods of Irrigation

There are several methods of Irrigation that are mentioned below. Kindly go through them to prepare for the upcoming NABAD Grade A exam in 2022.

Irrigation: Must Know Concept for NABARD Grade A Exam 2023

Surface Irrigation Method.

  • These are the most common method of irrigation throughout the world.
  • It is defined as the group of application tech. where water is applied and distributed over the soil surface gravity.
  • Surface irrigation is often referred to as flood irrigation which means the water distribution is uncontrolled and therefore inherently inefficient.
  • The most common surface irrigation methods are flooding, check basin, basin, border strips, and furrow methods.

Irrigation: Must Know Concept for NABARD Grade A Exam 2023


  • The flooding method of irrigation is exclusive for low land rise though it is used for some other crops also, water is allowed from the channel into the entire field, since standing water is present at least for small depth, spreading of eater is easy. Labour requirement for irrigation is less in this method.

Irrigation: Must Know Concept for NABARD Grade A Exam 2023

Drip Irrigation

This method, which is a form of Micro Irrigation as well, uses tubes to pump water over the field. Here, water is transported to the roots of plants in the form of water droplets.

Check Basin method:

  • It’s the most common method of surface method of irrigation, it is suitable for close-growing crops like groundnut, wheat, finger millets, etc.
  • In this method, the field is decided into rectangular or square plots surrounded by bunds on all four sides.
  • Water from the head channel is supplied to the filed channel one after the another
  • The advantage of this method is that the water can be applied uniformly
  • More labor is required for field layout and irrigation
  • Moreland is wasted under channels and bunds.

Irrigation: Must Know Concept for NABARD Grade A Exam 2023

Basin Method:

  • It is almost similar to the check basin method except that in the latter method the entire field is irrigated, while in the basin method only the basin around the tree is irrigated.
  • Basins are generally rectangular or round in shape.
  • Their size increases with the age of the tree, this method is suitable for fruit crops.

Border strip Method:

  • The field is laid into long narrow strips bordering with small bunds.
  • Length varies from 30 to 300 meters and breath 3 to 15 meters.
  • The most common sizes are 30 to 50 m in length and 3 to 5 m in width.
  • This method is suitable for close-growing crops and medium to heavy textured soil.
  • This method is not suitable for sandy soil.
  • Labour requirement is less for field layout and irrigation is less.

Furrow Irrigation:

  • It is conducted by creating small parallel channels along the field length in the direction of the predominant slope.
  • Water is applied to the top end of each furrow and flows down the field under the influence of gravity.
  • The speed of water movement is determined by many factors such as slope, surface roughness, and furrow shape but most importantly by the inflow rate and soil infiltration
  • The spacing between adjacent furrows is governed by the crop species, common spacings typically range from 0.75 to 2 m.

Irrigation: Must Know Concept for NABARD Grade A Exam 2023

  • The crop is planted on the ridge between furrows which may contain a single row of plants or several rows in the case of a bed-type system.
  • Depending on the soil type, location, and crop type, furrows may range anywhere from less than 100 m to 2000 m long.
  • Shorter furrows are commonly associated with higher uniformity of application but result in increased potential for runoff losses.
  • Furrow irrigation is particularly suited to broad-acre row crops such as cotton, maize, sugar cane, tomatoes, etc.

Importance of Irrigation

  • Inconsistent and insufficient rainfall severely hampers agriculture. Agriculture can continue unhindered with the use of effective irrigation systems.
  • Compared to unirrigated land, irrigated land is more productive. In every developing country, irrigated land regularly produces more crop yields than unirrigated land.
  • Because seeds need moisture to germinate, they cannot grow in dry soil. The necessary soil moisture for seed growth can be ensured with the aid of irrigation supplies.
  • Irrigation makes it feasible to grow several crops in one year. This will increase productivity and production. In many regions of India, two or three crops are grown with irrigation systems each year.
  • It is possible to provide the necessary amounts of hydrogen and oxygen through irrigation, which is necessary for the healthy development of plant roots.
  • The watered soil’s mineral nutrients can be absorbed by plants. So irrigation is crucial for the plant’s overall growth.

Govt. Initiative: Micro-Irrigation Fund

In NABARD, the Micro Irrigation Fund was operationalized in 2019–20 with a corpus of Rs. 5000 crores. The government of India’s Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare (MoA&FW) is the Nodal Ministry. The fund’s goal is to support state governments’ attempts to raise additional funds for increasing micro-irrigation coverage and encouraging its use beyond what is required under PMKSY-PDMC. It was intended to use the corpus in 2018–19 and 2019–20. However, the MIF implementation was further postponed from 2020 to 2021.
Irrigation: Must Know Concept for NABARD Grade A Exam 2023


Expert Tips to Prepare Irrigation for NABARD Grade A Exam 2022

Kindly go through the Expert tips to prepare the Irrigation chapter for NABARD Grade A Exam 2022.

  • Go through the NABARD Grade A previous year’s questions paper to understand the types of questions asked from the Irrigation chapter.
  • Know the important areas of the Irrigation syllabus of the ARD section.
  • Cover the important topics from any standard book available in the market.
  • Practice quizzes and mock tests to assess yourself.

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