UGC NET-PAPER 1
Polity & Governance PART 1
- The Indian Constitution is a comprehensive document containing details with the objective of providing stable and fair governance to its people.
- It starts with the preamble (beginning statement) promising justice, liberty equality, and fraternity. Three new words have been added to it: socialist, secular and integrity.
- It comprises of 448 articles in 25 parts and 12 schedules. There are 103 amendments that have been made. Originally it comprised of 395 articles in 22 parts and 8 schedules.
- Indian constitution is the longest and lengthiest constitution among all constitutions in the world.
- The idea to frame the Constitution of India was first suggested by the Communist leader MN Roy.
- The Indian Constitution took 2 years, 11 months and 18 days to frame the Constitution by the Constituent Assembly. Finally, it was formed on 26th November 1949 and came into force on 26th January 1950.
Prominent Members of the Committees of the Constituent Assembly who framed the Constitution
- B.R.Ambedkar- Drafting Committee
- Jawaharlal Nehru- Union Powers Committee, Union Constitution Committee, States Committee (Committee for Negotiating with States)
- Rajendra Prasad- Rules of Procedure Committee and Steering Committee
- Sardar Patel- Advisory Committee on Fundamental Rights, Minorities and Tribal and Excluded Areas, Provincial Constitution Committee
Various sources of our Constitution
- The government of India Act of 1935– Federal Scheme, Public Service Commission Office of Governor, Judiciary, Emergency provisions and administrative details.
- British Constitution– Parliamentary System, Legislative Procedure, Parliamentary Privileges Single Citizenship, Cabinet System, Rule of law, Prerogative Writs and Bicameralism.
- US Constitution– Fundamental rights, impeachment of president judicial review, independence of the judiciary, removal of Supreme court and high court judges and post of vice president.
- Irish Constitution– Directive Principles of State Policy, the method of election of a president, nomination of members of Rajya Sabha.
- Canadian Constitution– Federation with a strong centre, the appointment of state Governor by the centre and advisory jurisdiction of Supreme Court, vesting of residuary power in the centre,
- Australian Constitution–joint sitting of two houses of Parliament, Concurrent list,
- Constitution of Germany– Suspension of fundamental rights in case of emergency.
- French Constitution– Republic and ideals of liberty, fraternity and equality in the Preamble.
- South African Constitution- Election of members of Rajya Sabha, Procedure for amendment of the constitution and
- Japanese Constitution- Procedure established by Law.
- Constitution of former USSR: Fundamental duties, Procedure of five-year plan, ideals of justice in Preamble.
Important Parts in Constitution of India
- Part I-The Union and its Territory (Articles 1-4)
- Part II – Citizenship (Articles 5-11)
- Part III– Fundamental Rights (Articles 12-35)
- Part IV – Directive Principles of State Policy (Articles 36-51)
- Part IVA – Fundamental Duties (Article 51A)
- Part V – The Union Executive (Articles 52-151)
- Part VI – The States Executive (Articles 152-237)
- Part XI– Relations between the union and the states (Articles 245-263)
- Part XV– Elections (Articles 324-329)
- Part XVIII– Emergency provisions (Articles 352-360)
- Part XX– Amending the constitution (Article 368)
- Part XXI– Temporary, transitional and special provisions (Articles 369-372)
Fundamental Rights (Articles 12-35)
The fundamental rights in the constitution can be defined as a basic freedom of the human that every citizen of India has the right to enjoy for the development of his/her personality. The six fundamental rights in the Indian constitution are:
- Right to equality
- Right to freedom
- Cultural and Educational Rights
- Right against exploitation
- Right to freedom of religion, and
- Right to constitutional remedies
Fundamental Duties (Article 51A)
- The fundamental duties are the moral responsibilities of all Indian citizens to help promote a spirit of patriotism and to uphold the unity of India.
- These duties are not legally enforceable but held by the Supreme Court to be obligatory for all Indian citizens.
The eleven fundamental duties are as follows:-
- To abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and the National Anthem.
- To cherish and follow the noble ideals that inspired our national struggle for freedom.
- To uphold and protect the sovereignty, integrity and unity of India.
- To defend the country and render the national service when called upon to do so.
- To promote harmony and spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, regional, linguistic and or sectional diversities; to renounce the practices derogatory to the dignity of women.
- To value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite Indian culture.
- To protect and improve the natural environment including forests, rivers, lakes, wildlife and to have compassion for living creatures.
- To develop scientific temper, humanism and spirit of inquiry and reform.
- To safeguard the public property and to abjure violence.
- To strive towards excellence in every sphere of individual and collective activities, so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavour and achievement.
- Every parent or guardian to provide opportunities for education to his child, or as the case may be, ward between the age of 6-14 years.
We hope you understood polity related important terms for UGC NET Exam 2022.
Team BYJU'S Exam Prep