Important Newspapers During Freedom Struggle, Indian Mirror Newspaper

By Arpit Kumar Jain|Updated : November 9th, 2022

Newspapers during the freedom struggle in India were an important source of mass communication throughout the country. Leaders like Devendra Nath Tagore, Mahatma Gandhi, etc., used the newspaper to spread awareness among the masses. The impact of these journals and newspapers was limited to towns and cities and reached remote villages.

Newspapers during British Rule in India propagated the idea of patriotism, equality, the modern idea of democracy, and most importantly, ideas of freedom. Below you will learn about the important newspapers during the freedom struggle in India, important freedom fighters and their newspapers, and early regulations on the press in India.

Table of Content

List of Important Newspapers during Indian Freedom Struggle

Journals and Newspapers were the critical tools that united the compatriots and served the political education and participation pre-independence.

Important Newspapers during Freedom Struggle PDF

Britishers published the first English newspaper in India, but Indian freedom fighters used it against British rule. The list of the important journals and newspapers during British government in India, along with their year of publication and founders, is as under:




Newspaper/ Journal

Hindustan Dainik

M.M. Malviya


Hindi newspaper

Free Hindustan

Tarak Nath Das




M. K Gandhi


Weekly Journal

Nav Jeevan

M. K Gandhi


Weekly Newspaper

Hindustan Times

Sunder Singh Lyallpuri


English daily newspaper

Mook Nayak

B.R. Ambedkar


Marathi Weekly

Young India

M. K Gandhi


Weekly Journal


Motilal Nehru



New India

Annie Besant


English-language daily newspaper


Ganesh Shankar Vidyarthi


Hindi language newspaper


Abul Kalam Azad


Urdu weekly newspaper


Abul Kalam Azad


Urdu weekly newspaper


Maulana Mohammad Ali


Weekly English newspaper

Bombay Chronicle

Firoze Shah Mehta


English-language newspaper

Bande Mataram

Aurobindo Ghosh


English-language newspaper

Indian Opinion

M. K Gandhi




Swami Vivekananda



Prabuddha Bharata

P. Aiyasami


English monthly Journal 


Gopal Ganesh Agarkar




B.G. Tilak


Marathi Newspaper


Vir Raghavacharya and G.S. Aiyar




Sir Syed Ahmed Khan



Amrita Bazar Patrika

Sisir Kumar Ghosh and Motilal Ghosh



Indian Mirror Newspaper

Devendra Nath Tagore



Som Prakesh

Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar


Weekly Newspaper

Rast Goftar

Dadabhai Naoroji


Gujarati Newspaper

Hindoo Patriot

Madhusudan Ray


English weekly


Raja Ram Mohan Roy


Persian language journal

Samvad Kaumudi

Raja Ram Mohan Roy


Bengali weekly newspaper

Bengal Gazette

James Augustus Hicky


English newspaper

Freedom Fighters and their Newspapers

Indian Freedom Fighters had a significant role in awakening the masses to raise their voice against British rule in India. In this struggle, one of the easiest ways to share their ideas with the groups was through newspapers and journals. They started newspapers to support the Indian freedom Struggle for independence. The important newspapers during the freedom struggle published by freedom fighters were as follows-

New India Newspaper

New India Newspaper had two publications. The Weekly was started by Bipin Chandra Pal, while Annie Basant started New India (Daily). The newspaper spread patriotic feelings among Indians. It was similar to Kesari and Harijan, started by Tilak and Gandhi.

Indian Opinion Newspaper

Mahatma Gandhi established the Indian Opinion Newspaper as an essential tool for Gandhi's political movement. The Newspaper existed from 1904 till 1915. The principal aim of publishing the Newspaper was to fight the racial discrimination the Britishers faced from the Indian living in South Africa.

Hindustan Times

Hindustan Times was launched by Madan Mohan Malaviya in 1936 and was published by Hindustan Media Ventures Limited. This Newspaper was based in Delhi and is still published in India under the entity control of the KK Birla family.

Indian Mirror Newspaper

After the revolt of 1857, people started to look for freedom with a patriotic approach throughout the country. They became rebellious and were ready to sacrifice their life for freedom. Seeing the enthusiasm among people (particularly in Bengal), Devendra Nath Tagore started the Indian Mirror newspaper in the English language in Calcutta, West Bengal, in 1862. Manmohan Ghosh was one of the critical editors of the Newspaper in the beginning. Later, he was joined by Pratap Mazumdar. Along with other leaders, Narendra Nath Sen contributed significantly to the Indian Mirror newspaper.

Mahatma Gandhi Newspaper List

Soon after Gandhi returned to India, he was involved in a peaceful and non-violent protest against the British Government. His ideas influenced several freedom fighters, and they joined his journey towards freedom of the country. However, to reach out to the masses, he started four newspapers. Here is the list of newspapers started by Mahatma Gandhi:

  • Indian Opinion
  • Young India
  • Nav Jeevan
  • Harijan

Early Regulations on Press in India

The acts for the freedom of the press in India before independence include the following:

  • Censorship of Press Act, 1799 - This act was enacted by Lord Wellesley and anticipated France's invasion of India. This act imposed restrictions on the wartime press.
  • Licensing Regulations, 1823 - These regulations were passed by John Adams. After these regulations, Mirat-ul-Akbar, the publication of Rammohan Roy, had to stop.
  • Metcalfe or Press Act of 1835 - This act repealed the obnoxious 1823 ordinance.
  • Licensing Act, 1857 - The licensing act imposed licensing restrictions.
  • Registration Act, 1867 - This act was the regulatory and non-restrictive act that replaced Metcalfe's Act of 1835. According to this act, every Newspaper needs to print the publisher's and printer's name along with the place of publication.
  • The Vernacular Press Act - The Vernacular Press Act was designed to control the vernacular press and its repressive writings.
  • Newspaper (Incitement to Offences) Act, 1908 - This act was introduced against Extremist Nationalist activity.
  • Indian Press Act, 1910 - The act brought back the worst features of the Vernacular Press Act.


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FAQs on Newspapers during Freedom Struggle

  • Prominent Journals and Newspapers during British rule in India significantly impacted the masses. Leaders used newspapers and journals to effectively convey their ideas and groups, igniting the fire to fight for independence from the cruel British rule.

  • The first Newspaper in India, started by the British in India, was Hicky's Bengal Gazette in the English language. It was created and published by James Augustus Hicky in 1779. Though this Newspaper was an English newspaper, Anglo-Indian expressions were used.

  • Many newspapers were published by the prominent leaders of the Indian freedom struggle during the pre-independence period. A few important newspapers include Indian Mirror Newspaper by Devandra Nath Tagore, Hindustan Times by Madan Mohan Malaviya, Harijan by Gandhi, and more.

  • Darpan was the first Marathi newspaper, started by Balshastri Jambhekar. It was started in 1832 and was published as bilingual (English-Marathi) fortnightly. The publication was stopped in 1840.

  • Yugantar newspaper or the Jugantar Patrika was published by Barindra Kumar Ghosh, Abhinash Bhattacharya, and Bhupendranath Dutt. It was started in 1906 in Calcutta as a Bengali revolutionary newspaper.

  • Devendra Nath Tagore was the founder of the Indian Mirror Newspaper. This Newspaper was an English newspaper edited by Manmohan Ghosh and Pratap Mazumdar. After its successive influence on the masses, it was supported by Narendra Nath Sen.

  • The Indian Mirror newspaper was written on Aug 1, 1861, in Calcutta, India, in English by Devendra Nath Tagore. It was owned by Keshab Chandra Sen, and Manmohan Gosh was its prominent editor.

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