National Symbols of India(Hindi/English)
1. National Flag
National Flag is a symbol of a free country. India’s National Flag was adopted in its present form during the meeting of Constituent Assembly held on the 22 July 1947. The National Flag is a horizontal tricolour of deep saffron (Kesaria) at the top. The white colour is in the middle and dark green at the bottom in equal proportion. The flag's height ratio to the flag's width is 2 to 3. There is a navy-blue wheel in the centre of the white band that represents the chakra.
Saffron colour- Strength and courage
White colour- Peace and truth with Dharma Chakra
Green colour- Fertility, growth and auspiciousness of the land
The wheel in the national flag was taken from Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka.
2. National Bird
The Indian peacock, Pavo cristatus, the national bird of India, is a colourful, swan-sized bird, with a fan-shaped crest of feathers, a white patch under the eye and a long, slender neck.
3. National Flower
Lotus (Scientific name- Nelumbo Nucifera Gaertn) is the National Flower of India. It is a sacred flower occupies a unique position in the art and mythology of ancient India. It is mainly found in India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka but has been introduced all over the world. India is rich in flora and fauna. Currently available data place India in the tenth position in the world and fourth in Asia in plant diversity.
4. National Tree
Banyan Tree(Ficus bengalensis) is the national tree of India. The branches of Banyan Tree are rooted like new trees over a big region. Roots offer rise to more trunks and branches. Because of this characteristic and its longevity, the tree is considered immortal and is an integral part of the myths and legends of India. These trees are one of the largest trees in the world and grow up to 20-25 m with branches spreading up to 100 m. Even in present time, the banyan tree is the focal point of village life and the village council meets under the shade of this tree.
5. National Anthem
"Jana Gana Mana" is India's National Anthem. The "Indian National Anthem" is performed or sung on different occasions. The playing time of National Anthem is approximately 52 seconds. Whenever the anthem is sung or performed, the audience shall pay attention to it. It was originally composed in Bengali by India’s first Nobel laureate Shri Rabindranath Tagore. Rabindra Nath Tagore has written the National Anthem of Bangladesh as well. The first version of the ‘Jana Gana Mana’ was sung in a convention of the Indian National Congress in 1911 at Calcutta.
The parent song, ‘Bharoto Bhagyo Bidhata’ is a Brahmo hymn which has five verses and only the first verse has been adopted as National Anthem.
The song was first published in the Tatwabodhini Patrika under the title Bharat Bhagya Bidhata. Tatwabodhini Patrika was the official publication of the Brahmo Samaj.
6. State Emblem
The state emblem is an adaptation from the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka. In the original, there are four lions, standing back to back, mounted on an abacus with a frieze carrying sculptures in high relief of an elephant, a galloping horse, a bull and a lion separated by intervening wheels over a bell-shaped lotus.
In the state emblem, adopted by the Government of India on 26 January 1950, only three lions are visible, the fourth lion is not visible.
7. National Calendar
The Indian national calendar sometimes called the Shalivahana Shaka calendar. National Calendar was adopted from 22 March 1957 along with the Gregorian calendar. King Shalivahana of the Shatavahana dynasty is known as the founder of SAKA era. The Saka Calendar is based on the lunisolar reckoning of time. The calendar consists of 365 days and 12 months like the normal Gregorian calendar.
8. National Animal
The national animal of India is the Royal Bengal Tiger. The scientific name of Royal Bengal Tiger is Panthera tigris. Tiger is found in various parts of Asia including India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Myanmar, and Sri Lanka. Tigers are easily found in the forests of Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal, Uttarakhand, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Odisha. India now is home to 70% of the world’s tiger population.
9. National Song
The song Vande Mataram, composed in Sanskrit by Bankimchandra Chatterji, was a source of inspiration to the people in their struggle for freedom. The poem features in Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay’s patriotic novel ‘Anandamath’ which was published as a series in the Bengali periodical ‘Banga Darshan’ between 1880 and 1882.
10. National Currency
The Indian rupee(sign: ₹; code: INR) is the official currency of the Republic of India. The symbol “₹” is an amalgamation of Devanagari "Ra" and the Roman Capital "R" with two parallel horizontal stripes running at the top representing the national flag and also the "equal to" sign. The Indian Rupee sign was adopted by the GOI(Government of India) on 15th July 2010. The symbol conceptualized and designed by Udaya Kumar, a post-graduate in Design from Indian Institute of Technology Bombay.
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