NATIONAL ENVIRONMENT ORGANISATION
Animal Welfare Board of India:
- It is an advisory and statutory body on laws of animal welfare and to promote it.
- It was set up in 1962, according to section 4 of Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960.
- It is first of its kind in the world, headquartered in Ballabhgarh (Faridabad, Haryana) and pioneered or guided by Mrs Rukmini Devi Arundale.
- The board consist of 28 members, for a period of 3 years.
- Some of its functions are:
- To advise the central government on the amendment of the cruelty of animals.
- To advise the central government of any local authority on improvements in the design of the vehicle to reduce the burden on animals.
- Provide all types of measures like sheds, food, water and veterinary assistance,
- To maintain slaughterhouse to reduce the pain of animals and take all steps to ensure that unwanted animals are destroyed by the local authority using a less painful method.
- To encourage financial assistance and grant for making facilities like shelter home, hospital and medicals and give financial assistance to any local animal organisations.
- Give education relating to human nature of animal and promote animal welfare.
National Biodiversity authority:
- It was created in 2003 under the Biodiversity act 2002.
- It is an autonomous and statutory body for advisory and regulatory functions under government for conservation, sustainable use of resources and sharing of resources.
- Some of the objectives are:
- Prior approval for intellectual property rights in research in biological resources or knowledge obtained from India.
- Protection of knowledge of local people through registration of knowledge.
- It advises the central government relating to conservation and sustainable and equitable use of benefits.
- Advises to the state government on selecting areas as heritage sites which are important biologically.
- Without permission, no one can transfer the knowledge and/or grant in biological resources. NBA gives approval for transfer.
Note: State biodiversity board work as local level biodiversity management committee. It gives advises on biological management and right use of benefits from the environment and promotes conservation.
Wildlife Crime Control Bureau:
- It is a statutory body which is constituted under the Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 to prevent illegal activities like smuggling and poaching.
- Some of the functions are:
- Collection of intelligence and establishment of centralized wildlife crime data bank.
- Implementation of provisions of act and obligations under various protocols and conventions.
- Assistance to different authority in foreign countries under international organisations.
- Developing infrastructure and building scientific and professional investigations.
Central Zoo Authority:
- Constituted under amendment of Wildlife Protection Act in 1991 by adding a new section for Zoos and constituted authority by the central government.
- Following are the functions of authority in the act:
- Decide minimum standards for zoos and ensure all services to take care of animals.
- Identify endangered species for better protection of it. Exchange and loaning of animals for breeding purposes.
- Organise training of zoo personnel and coordinate research and educational programs and maintain all the data about different species.
Wildlife Trust of India:
- It is a non-profit government organisation to conserve nature especially critically endangered species and threatened habitats with the help of different communities.
- Functions through local communities and government on a range of projects for preventions and rehabilitation of wildlife.
National Ganga River Basin Authority:
- Constituted in 2009 under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986. It is a body for planning, coordinating and financing for both centre and state.
- The main functions include:
- Conservation and reduction of pollution in the Ganga River and using comprehensive planning and management.
- Development of the river basin is the core approach for management. All the activities and measure are aimed at reducing pollution and relevant to river ecology.
- Management of minimum ecology flow. Infrastructures like sewerage, catchment area and protection against flood.
- Investigation and research project for improving the quality of water and creating public awareness to use water conservation practices.
- Monitor and review of all the programmes and activities.
Central Pollution Control Board:
- It is a statutory body established under the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act 1974.
- It provides technical services to the Ministry of Environment and Forests under the provisions of the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986.
- It Co-ordinates the activities of the State Pollution Control Boards by providing technical assistance and guidance and also resolves disputes among them.
- Some of the functions are:
- Advises the central government on any matter related to pollution in water and air pollution, and plan and execute a nationwide program to prevent it.
- Plan and organise training programs for personnel related to the prevention of water and air pollution.
- Collect technical and statistical data for better implementation of programs. Prepare manuals and guidelines and create public awareness.
National Tiger Conservation Authority:
- On the recommendation of the Tiger Task Force by the Prime Minister of India Project Tiger and many Tiger reserves in India.
- Helping the state and the central government in the management of tiger reserves.
- Some of the key functions are:
- To approve a conservation plan prepared by the state government. Provide management guidelines and measures addressing man and animal conflict.
- Provide information related to the estimation of population of tiger, natural prey, habitat status, and disease outbreak and mortality survey.
- Program for skill development for forest personnel.
Forest Survey of India:
- Established in 1981 under the union ministry of Environment, forest and Climate Change.
- Monitoring of changing the situation of land and forest resources and use it for national planning, conservation, management and preservation of forest resources.
- Key functions are:
- Prepare state of Forest Report biennially for assessment of the country’s forest cover. Develop a database for forest and non-forest areas.
- To prepare thematic maps using aerial photographs. Act and functions as a nodal agency collection, compilation and storage of spatial database on forest resources.
- Strengthen research and development infrastructure and training of forest personnel in the application of technologies like remote sensing and GIS etc.
- To support the state forestry department in survey mapping and inventory.
National Board of Wildlife:
- Constituted under the Wildlife Protection Act. Prime minister Chairman of the board and vice chairman is union minister of environment and forest.
- Some of the functions are:
- Deal with Environment impact assessment projects.
- Recommendation on the setting of areas like a national park and wildlife sanctuaries and decide all the activities under protected areas.
- Frame policies for the protection of wildlife and prevent illegal trade and poaching. For altering the tiger reserves state needs approval from this body.
- Publish a report on the state of wildlife in India.
National Green Tribunals:
- Created under the National Green Tribunal Act, 2010 for handling all the cases related to environmental issues.
- It can have 20 members each from the judicial background and expert members.
- It has the power of the civil court and guided by the principle of natural justice.
- Appeals against the order of NGT have to be made to Supreme Court within 90 days and the cases under NGT have to be disposed within 6 months.
Genetic Engineering Advisory Committee:
- Established according to the Rules for Manufacture, Use, Import, Export and Storage of Hazardous Microorganisms/Genetically Engineered Organisms or Cells 1989’ in accordance with the Environment Protection Act, 1986 and works under Dept of Biotechnology, Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate change
- Approves filed trails for genetically modifies crops and can take punitive action for non-compliance.
- Appraise the activities including large scale use of catastrophic micro-organisms and industrial production from an environmental perspective.
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