1. Levels of teaching
a. Memory level of Teaching
- It is the first stage of teaching.
- This level of teaching assists the learner to retain the topic and also to reproduce the material which the student learnt.
- Good memory includes rapidity in learning and recalling the stability of retention, and the ability to bring only desirable contents to the conscious level.
- Herbart is the main exponent of the memory level of teaching.
b. Understanding level of Teaching
- This level of teaching is known as ‘memory plus insight’, as it goes beyond just memorizing of facts.
- It focuses on the mastery of the subject.
- It makes pupil understand the generalizations, principles and facts.
- It supports a lot of opportunities for the students to develop ‘intellectual behaviour’.
- Morrison is the main endorser of the understanding level of teaching.
c. Reflective level of Teaching
- Reflective level of Teaching: It is considered as the highest level of teaching and it includes both Understanding Level of Teaching (ULT) and Memory Level of Teaching (MLT).
- It is a problem-centric approach to teaching.
- The aim of this teaching is to develop a reflective power of learning such that this teaching can assist to solve problems by reasoning, logic and imagination, and lead successful and happy lives.
2. Characteristics of Teaching
The features of teaching include the following points:
- Teaching is a system of actions that not only varies in form but also relates to the content and student's behaviour under the various (social, physical) conditions.
- Teaching is a professional activity that involves a teacher & student with an aim to develop a student's overall personality.
- Teaching can be analysed & assessed and provide genuine feedback for further improvement in a student's overall personality.
- It is an interactive process that is carried with process & objectives. Communication skills play an important role in the teaching field.
- Teaching is a specialized task and may be needed to attains a set of skills for the realization of certain objectives and aims.
- Teaching should be effective enough to engage the students.
Basic requirements of teaching:
- All three variables of teaching. (Dependent variable, independent variable and intervening variables)
- Professionalism is needed for teaching to take place.
- A cohesive environment for the students should be there, so that teaching can be useful.
- The teacher-student relationship should be healthy so that students can ask questions without hesitation.
- Student’s discipline is another basic requirement for effective teaching.
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