Key Highlights of World Malaria Report 2020
- The World Malaria Report 2020 highlighted that malaria cases globally numbered around 229 million in 2019 in 87 malaria endemic nations, declining from 238 million in 2000.
- Malaria case incidence (i.e. cases per 1000 population at risk): Reduced from 80 (2000) to 58 (2015) and 57 (2019) globally.
- Global malaria case incidence: Between 2000 and 2015, declined by 27%, and between 2015 and 2019 it declined by less than 2%
- Severely affected countries: 95% of malaria cases are from 29 countries globally.
- Nigeria (27%), Democratic Republic of the Congo (12%), Uganda (5%), Mozambique (4%) and Niger (3%) account for about 51% of all Malaria cases globally.
- Other severe nations: Burkina Faso, Cameroon, the Democratic, Ghana, India, Mali, and the United Republic of Tanzania.
- Highest burden countries accounts for 70% of global case as well as 71% global Malaria deaths.
- Global Malaria deaths: Reduced steadily from 7,36,000 in 2000 to 4,09,000 in 2019. Total malaria deaths among children aged under 5 years was 84% in 2000 and 67% in 2019.
- South-East Asia:
- This region accounts for 3% of global Malaria cases
- Reductions in Malaria cases: 73% from 23 million in 2000 to about 6.3 million in 2019
- Reduction in deaths due to Malaria: 74% from about 18 cases per 1000 population at risk in 2000 to about 4 cases in 2019.
- India accounts for 88% of malaria cases and 86% of malaria deaths in WHO South-East Asia Region in 2019.
India in World Malaria Report 2020
- World Malaria Report 2020 indicates that India has made significant progress in reducing its malaria burden.
- India is the only high endemic country which has reported case decline of 17.6% in 2019 as compared to 2018.
- Annual Parasitic Incidence (API) reduced by 27.6% in 2018 compared to 2017 and by 18.4% in 2019 as compared to 2018.
- India has sustained API less than one since year 2012.
- India has also contributed to the largest drop in cases region-wide, from 20 million to around 6 million.
- Malaria percentage drop between 2000 to 2019: 71.8% (cases) and 73.9% (death).
- India was having 20,31,790 cases of Malaria with 932 average deaths in 2000, which is reduced to 3,38,494 Malaria cases with 77 deaths.
- India also saw reduction of 83.34% in malaria morbidity and 92% in malaria mortality between 2000 and 2019, thereby achieving Goal 6 of the Millennium Development Goals (50-75% decrease in case incidence between 2000 and 2019).
- WHO highlighted India’s effort towards Malaria as “impressive gains” with reductions in cases and deaths of 18% and 20% respectively, over the last 2 years.
Malaria is caused by a parasite that commonly infects a certain type of mosquito which feeds on humans and than through them is transmitted to Humans
How it Spreads? Female Anopheles mosquitoes deposit parasite sporozoites into human host.
Four kinds of malaria parasites infect humans:
- Plasmodium falciparum,
- ovale, and
- In addition, P. knowlesi, a type of malaria that naturally infects macaques in Southeast Asia, also infects humans, causing malaria that is transmitted from animal to human (“zoonotic” malaria).
Initiative taken by India to eliminate Malaria
- National Framework for Malaria Elimination (NFME) 2016-2030: It is in line with WHO Global Technical Strategy for Malaria 2016–2030 (GTS) and the Asia Pacific Leaders Malaria Alliance Malaria Elimination Roadmap.
- It will eliminate malaria (zero indigenous cases) throughout the country by 2030.
- It maintains malaria–free status in areas where malaria transmission has been interrupted and prevent re-introduction of malaria.
- Mera India: It is launched by Indian Council of Medical Research.
- MERA stands for 'Malaria Elimination Research Alliance (MERA) India'.
- It is a conglomeration of partners working on malaria control in order to prioritise, plan and scale up research to eliminate the disease from India by 2030.
- Odisha’s Durgama Anchalare Malaria Nirakaran (DAMaN) initiative: It aims to deliver services to the most inaccessible and hardest hit people of the State.
- DAMaN initiative has in-built innovative strategies to combat asymptomatic malaria.
- It is jointly implemented by Indian Council of Medical Research-National Institute of Malaria Research (ICMR-NIMR), National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP), Odisha and Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV).