Student engagement in learning and understanding of materials is given more emphasis in today’s education over spoon-feeding the facts. So, using black-boards or traditional lecture methods are not adequate to teach science and other subjects.
Many scholars and researchers have proposed advanced ideas and they claim that virtual teaching scenarios or simulations can help to build a better understanding of subjects among students.
These innovative teaching methods in science can substitute traditional teaching techniques to achieve the goal.
- Hands-on Learning
- Visual clues
- ICT Enabled Learning
- Science games for kids
- Science Exhibition
- Field trips
- Science Fair
- Multimedia Approach, etc
Team teaching had its origin in America in the mid-1950s.
According to Shaptain and Olds, “team teaching is a type of instructional organization, involving teaching personal and the students assigned to them, in which two or more teachers are given responsibility, working together for all or a significant part of the instruction of the same group of students.”
According to Lloyd Trump and Darsey Baynham, “team teaching is an arrangement whereby two or more teachers, with or without teaching aids, cooperatively plan, instruct and evaluate one or more class groups, in an inappropriate instructional space and given length of time, so as to take advantage of the special competencies of the team members.”
David W. Beggs says, “a team is a systematic arrangement with a leader and assistants and with optimum use of technology cooperatively instruct a group of students wearing the size of the student groups and procedures with the purpose of instruction and spending staff time and energy in a way that will make the best use of their respective competencies.
According to David Warwick (1971), “team teaching is a form of organization in which individual teacher decide the interest and expertise of the past resource in order to a device and implement the scheme of work suitable to the needs of their peoples and facilities of the school.
Characteristics of team teaching:
- It is a form of instructional organization.
- A number of teachers join hands and decide to take action it is not in force upon them the Co-operative members fully understand it they are enthusiastic about it and have to be prepared to give the time and energy to make it work.
- Resources are pooled for the benefit of all concerned their resources include factors such as specializations in interest knowledge skills experience they also include more tensile factors such as periods on the timetable equipment facilities and free time for meetings.
- It develops the ability of group work.
- The main aim of team teaching is to make the teaching-learning more effective.
Organization of team teaching:
- A member of a specialist teacher may join hands but restrict their efforts in a particular age group.
- A number of specialist teachers may join hands in a single subject throughout the school.
- Subject specialists from different field main work together with a mixed age and ability group.
Steps for team teaching in science teaching:
The main steps of team teaching in Science are as follows:
- planning of team teaching
- execution of the Planning
- evaluation of team teaching
Planning of team teaching:
The plan of the team teaching is prepared in order to prepare a plan of team teaching the following activities are performed.
- determining the objectives of team teaching.
- the decision related to the subject and topic which are taught.
- writing the objectives of team teaching in behavioural terms.
Selection of the members of a team for team teaching:
- identifying entering behaviour of people.
- given the teaching work according to their ability and interest.
- the creative learning environment and teaching material.
Execution of the Planning:
- The teacher asks some initial questions in order to decide the level of the instruction. Only then he can set the level of the instruction.
- The communication technique is selected keeping in view the student's knowledge of the language.
- A teacher delivers lead lecture while the other member teachers of the team listen to it. They note down the space of the important point live which are difficult for the students to understand them.
- The other teachers of the team also deliver lectures and clarify various elements.
- Students activities are reinforced the teacher encourages the students.
- The students are asked to performed certain tasks in the class.
Evaluation of team teaching:
It is the last step of team teaching in which evaluate all activities in this step teachers should keep in mind the following points.
- teaching objects
- the various behaviour of students
- duties followed by the members of a team
- proper use of the achievement of curing
- difficulties come during the team teaching the past behaviour of the students' educational achievement of the students.
Principles of Team Teaching:
- Duration according to the importance
- level of instruction according to students
- objective-based supervision
- appropriate size and composition
- appropriate duties assigned to teachers
- proper learning environment.
Advantages of Team Teaching:
- it improves the quality of instruction
- it is helpful to control the class
- it is economical in terms of time and energy
- it is helpful to improve each teacher individually
- it develops a proper human relation
- it develops the vocational development in the teachers
The term micro-teaching was first coined by A.W. Dwight Allen of the Stanford University in 1963 for developing teaching behaviours and teaching activities. Microteaching is like a simulated social skill teaching to provide feedback to teacher trainees for the modification of teacher’s behaviour. It is a training concept that can be applied to various pre-service and in-service stages in the professional development of the teacher.
In micro-teaching, a student-teacher teaches a single unit to the lesson for 15 or 10 minutes to a small group of students comprised of 5 to 10 students and manifest only one teaching skills repeatedly during his teacher. His teaching is observed by his classmates and the teacher trainer. After the teaching is over, they tell the student teacher at what points did he commit mistakes, how many times and to what extent of accuracy and effectiveness he or she used a particular skin during his teaching and how we can improve his teaching by the effective use of skills. This process continues in the student database value practised with those skills.
According to Allen, “ micro-teaching is the scaled-down teaching encounter,”
According to Clift, “as a teacher training procedure which reduces the teaching situation to simpler and more control encounter achieved by limiting practices teaching to a specific skill and reducing teaching time and class size.”
Steps of Micro-teaching:
- defining a specific skill
- demonstration of the skills
- micro- lesson plan
- teaching a small group
- re-planning, re-teaching, and re-evaluation.
The computer is the most significant contribution of men in the present century. Computer-assisted instruction has emerged as an effective and efficient medium of instruction in the advanced countries of the world. The meaning of computer-assisted instruction is that instruction which is controlled with the help of a computer machine.
- It is being used in formal and non-formal education at all levels.
- It is based on programmed learning.
- The main objective of program instruction is to provide individualized instruction just to fulfil the special needs of the individual student.
- The technique is flexible.
- It gives more emphasis on the variety in the use of methods and techniques.
- It is the main source of receiving facts and information for the teachers and students.
It is given by BF Skinner. It has been defined as a method of individualized instructions in which the student are active and proceed at his own pace and is provided with immediate knowledge of the result. It is helpful to develop self-study. It helps the student to learn by doing.
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