Important Social Security Schemes in India (Part II)

By Saroj Singh|Updated : March 21st, 2020

This article is relevant to the UPSC CSE Prelim and UPSC EPFO 2020 Recruitment Test.

Mahatma Gandhi, the Father of the Nation, rightly said: “India lives in its villages”. This statement is relevant even today from the political, social and economic perspectives of India. As per the Census 2011, nearly 69% population live in the rural areas and rest are in the urban area. Rural life in India is characterised by poverty, unemployment, as well as poor and inadequate infrastructure, and these will have a cascading effect on urban centres by causing slums and economic and social tension. Therefore, for the development of the nation, it is essential to pay more attention to the rural areas and the govt has been doing this by way of the various schemes designed for the development of Indian economy.

Important Social Security Schemes in India (Part II)

The rise in unemployment has been a silent phenomenon in India. The unemployment scenario in the country over the years is quite substantial evidence of rural backwardness and all sorts of developmental needs. Apart from Social Security Schemes to secure employment of the vulnerable section, the govt has very progressively started employment generation initiatives in India. Some of the programs initiated by the Govt are integrated rural development programs.

In this article, let us discuss some of the initiatives of the govt in this regard.

II. Social Security measures related to skill development

  1. Integrated Rural Development Program

  • Introduced in 1979, on an experimental basis, to provide assistance to the rural poor families below the poverty line.
  • It is a centrally sponsored scheme implemented by the  District Rural Development Agencies (DRDA) of the states.
  • The scheme is funded on 50:50 basis by the centre and the states.
  • Development of Women and Children in Rural Areas (DWCRA) and Training Rural Youth for Self-Employment (TRYSEM) were the sub-plans of the Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP).
  • The basic aim was of TYSEM was to provide training to those rural youth (ages 18-35 yrs) who belong to the families living below the poverty line.
  • It started an advanced activity like the creation of self-help groups, capacity building, infrastructural support, technology, credit and markets.
  1. Jawahar Rojgar Yojana

  • It is a wage employment programme with an objective of generation of employment in the lean agriculture season to the unemployed and underemployed rural people both men and women living below the poverty line.
  • It was amended on 1989 into Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana.
  • The total expenditure was shared by the Centre and State govts in the ratio of 80:20.
  • 30% of the employment opportunities were reserved for women.
  • It is implemented by the Panchayats at the village, block and district levels in the ratio of 70:15:15 respectively.
  1. Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS)

  • A project launched by Ministry of Rural Development came into existence on 2nd Feb 2006 to improve the condition of rural poor in our country with a legal guarantee of 100 days employment opportunity with a minimum prescribed wage in the unskilled labour sector.
  • The MGNREG Act provides for at least 100 days of employment to one able-bodied person in every rural household every year.
  • The central govt and the state govts bear 75% and 25% of the cost of material, wages of skilled and semi-skilled workers.
  1. Swarna Jayanti Shahri Rozgar Yojana

  • The urban self-employment programme and urban wage employment programmes of the Swarna Jayanti Shahri Yojana, which substituted (in December 1997) various programmes operated earlier for poverty alleviation.
  • The scheme is funded on 75:25 basis between the Centre and the States.
  1. Swarna Jayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY)

  • Launched in 1999 as a holistic programme covering all aspects of self-employment.
  • The scheme is funded on 75:25 basis by the centre and states.
  • The objective of the SGSY is to bring the assisted Swarozgaris above the poverty line by providing them income-generating assets through bank credit and govt subsidy.
  • A holistic programme of micro-enterprises covering all aspects of self-employment which includes organizing rural poor into Self-help groups.
  • Integration of various agencies like District Rural development Agencies, banks, Panchayat raj institutions, NGOs etc.

6. National Rural livelihood Programme

  • This programme is also known as Aajeevika.
  • Launched in 2011 with an aim to improve the skilled labourer with local employment opportunity to improve the condition of urban as well as rural people.
  • The employee will get benefits according to their skills and performance.

 7. Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana

  • Launched in 2015, the scheme emphasized on skill development of youth.
  • It involves enabling Indian youth to take up skill training and becoming employable and earn a livelihood.
  • Encourage standardization in the certification process of creating a registry of skills.
  • Reward candidates undergoing skill training by authorized institutions at ana average monetary reward of Rs 8000 per candidate.
  • Overall, it seeks to increase the productivity of the existing workforce and align the training and certification to the needs of the country.

With all these schemes, the government of India is constantly striving to ensure social and economical development of the society, with the main focus on rural poor. Therefore, it can be said that  India’s anti-poverty strategy comprises of a wide range of poverty alleviation and employment generation programmes. Many of such programmes have been in operation for several years and have been strengthened to generate more employment, impart technical and entrepreneurial skills, create productive assets, and raise the income level of the poor.

Click here for the previous article “Important Social Security Schemes in India (Part I)”

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Que. Recently, the State Government of Odisha has decided to merge which of its schemes with Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi Yojana?

  • Biju Health Welfare Scheme
  • Kalia
  • Gopabandhu Samvadika Swasthya Bima Yojana
  • Jalsathi

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