Human Development Index [HDI]: Indian Economy Notes PDF

By Aarna Tiwari|Updated : June 8th, 2022

Human Development Index (HDI) is a statistic developed and compiled to measure various countries’ social and economic development levels by the United Nations. The HDI was created to emphasize that people and their capabilities should be the ultimate criteria for assessing the development of a country, not economic growth alone. As a part of the Human Development Index, every year United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) releases the Human Development Report (HDR). Norway tops the Human Development Report, with a score of 0.957. Norway is followed by Ireland, Switzerland, Hong Kong and Iceland respectively. United States ranks 17th with an HDI value of 0.926.

The Human Development Report was first launched in 1990 and has been released annually ever since, except in 2012. The Human Development Report for the years 2021 and 2022 will be released by the end of June, 2022. As per the last Human Development Report, the HDI Rank of India is at the 131st position, with a score of 0.645.

Human Development Index UPSC is an important topic for the upcoming exam as it forms a part of the current affairs and economy section of the syllabus. The HDI UPSC Notes include all the important points, such as the what is HDI, Human Development Report UPSC, HDI Rank of India 2020 UPSC and HDI Rank of India 2021 UPSC.

Table of Content

 

What is Human Development Index?

The Human Development Index is a statistical composite index combining factors such as life expectancy, education, and per capita income that is used to categorize nations into four tiers of human development. The HDI uses average annual income and educational expectations to rank and compare countries, and evaluate the level of individual human development in each country. 

Evaluating a country’s potential for individual human development provides a supplementary metric for evaluating a country’s level of development. The HDI is composed of three principal areas of interest, viz.: 

  • Life expectancy at birth
  • Knowledge (Mean years of schooling and Expected years of schooling)
  • Gross National Income (GNI) per capita. 

Human Development Index (HDI)

Human Development Report UPSC

The Human Development Report (HDR) is published by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). The UNDP’s Human Development Report focuses on the human development approach. The objectives behind publishing the Human Development Report UPSC are:

  • Advancement of human development
  • Expansion of opportunities, choices, and freedom of people across the globe
  • Introduction to the innovative ideas concerning human development
  • The advocation of practical policy changes
  • Challenging the policies and approaches that hinder human development

The first Human Development Report was published in 1990 by the Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq and Indian Nobel laureate Amartya Sen. The Human Development Report covers 13 dimensions:

  1. Gender
  2. Health
  3. Human security
  4. Mobility & Communication
  5. Socio-economic sustainability
  6. Trade and financial flows
  7. Work, employment and vulnerability
  8. Income
  9. Inequality
  10. Humans Development
  11. Demography
  12. Education
  13. Environment Sustainability

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) annually releases the HDR with 5 composite indices, which are:

  1. Human Development Index
  2. Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (considers ‘Inequality’ as the fourth pillar)
  3. Gender Development Index
  4. Gender Inequality Index
  5. Multidimensional Poverty Index

Candidates preparing for the upcoming IAS Exam must cover Human Development Report UPSC to ensure they are able to answer all related questions. 

HDI Rank of India 2021 

The Human Development Report (HDR) 2021/22 has not been published yet. The HDI Rank of India 2021 is still under formulation and will be posted at the end of the second quarter of 2022. The HDR Special Report for 2022 titled ‘New Threats to Human Security in the Anthropocene’, shows that people’s sense of safety and security is at a low in almost every country, including the wealthiest countries, despite years of upwards development success.

The HDR Special Report for 2022 examines a cluster of threats that have shifted to become more prominent in recent years including those from digital technologies, inequalities, conflicts, and the ability of healthcare systems to tackle new challenges like the COVID-19 pandemic. The report also notes the strong association between declining levels of trust and feelings of insecurity. People with higher levels of perceived human insecurity are three times less likely to find others trustworthy.

HDI Rank of India 2020 

The Human Development Report (HDR) 2020 was launched in December 2020. The Human Development Report triggered dialogue in all regions of the world, promoting debate among key policy-makers at the highest political level including several heads of state.

The Human Development Report (HDR) 2020 is titled “The Next Frontier- Human Development and the Anthropocene”. Out of 189 countries, India is ranked at the 131st position on the Human Development Index 2020. With an HDI Rank of India 2020 at 131st, with a value of 0.645, India fell in the medium human development category.

HDI UPSC

The Human Development Index (HDI) is an important topic for the UPSC Prelims and UPSC Mains. The UPSC Exam, every year asks questions about the HDI Rank of India and its key aspects. The HDI UPSC is covered under the Economy section of the UPSC Syllabus. To understand the Human Development Index UPSC, one needs to go through the Economy Notes for UPSC, and supplement important points from the basic UPSC Books.

To cover the essential details for the HDI UPSC, go through the article here and download the HDI UPSC notes PDF for easy reference and revision.

Human Development Index Report (HDI) UPSC Notes PDF 

Download the complete HDI UPSC notes PDF to understand and clear the concepts about the Human Development Index and the Human Development Report UPSC.

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FAQs on Human Development Index Report

  • The Human Development Index (HDI) is a statistical tool developed and compiled to measure various countries’ social and economic development levels by the United Nations. 

  • The 4 HDI Indicators are:

    • Life expectancy at birth
    • Mean years of schooling
    • Expected years of schooling
    • Gross National Income (GNI) per capita.


  • The prepare for the Human Development Index UPSC, a candidate needs to first read the NCERT Books for UPSC, along with the Economics Books for UPSC to get a clear picture. After this, the basic UPSC Books should be referred to.

  • HDI is calculated as the geometric mean (equally-weighted) of life expectancy, education, and GNI per capita, as follows:

    HDI = ( I(health) * I(education) * I(income))1/3

    The education dimension is the arithmetic mean of the two education indices (mean years of schooling and expected years of schooling).

  • The Human Development Index (HDI) was first developed by the Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq and Indian Nobel laureate Amartya Sen. Mahbub ul Haq is known as the father of the Human Development Index.

  • The Human Development Index (HDI) provides a single index measure to capture three key dimensions of human development: a long and healthy life, access to knowledge and a decent standard of living. It emphasizes that people and their capabilities should be the ultimate criteria for assessing the development of a country, not economic growth alone.

  • India ranks at the 131st position according to the latest report(HDR-2020). The HDI Rank of India in 2022 is still under formulation.

  • Norway tops the Human Development Report, with a score of 0.957. Norway is followed by Ireland, Switzerland, Hong Kong and Iceland respectively. United States ranks 17th with an HDI value of 0.926.

  • The higher the HDI, the better. A high HDI essentially means that the country in question offers a generally high standard of living, with decent healthcare, education, and opportunities to earn money.

  • The first Human Development Report was published in 1990 by the Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq and Indian Nobel laureate Amartya Sen. 

  • The HDI UPSC Notes PDF can be downloaded from here. One should download the HDI UPSC Notes PDF once he/she has attainted the basic knowledge of HDI UPSC through this article.

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