What is Human Development Index?
The Human Development Index HDI] is a blend of numerous statistical factors such as life expectancy, education, and per capita income that is employed to stratify nations into four segments of human development. The HDI makes use of the average annual income and educational expectations to rank and take a comparison with other countries to measure the level of development of individuals in all the countries.
Gauging the potential of individuals and human development facilitates a supplementary metric for measuring a country's status of development. The Human Development Index [HDI] comprises three major areas of interest:
- Life expectancy at birth
- Knowledge (Mean years of schooling and Expected years of schooling)
- Gross National Income (GNI) per capita.
Human Development Report
The Human Development Report (HDR) is imprinted by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). The main emphasis laid by UNDP is on the approach that leads to human development. The foremost objective behind publishing the Human Development Report UPSC are:
- Progress and enhancing human development.
- Augmentation of chances, and choices, and facilitating liberty of people throughout the world.
- Institution to the creative ideas pertaining to human development.
- Upholding the practical amendments in the policy.
- Opposing the policies coming as an obstacle to human development.
The first Human Development Report was imprinted in 1990 by the Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq and the renowned laureate of India, Amartya Sen. The Human Development Report covers 13 dimensions:
- Human security
- Mobility & Communication
- Socio-economic sustainability
- Trade and financial flows
- Work, employment and vulnerability
- Humans Development
- Environment Sustainability
The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) annually releases the HDR with 5 composite indices, which are:
- Human Development Index
- Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (considers ‘Inequality’ as the fourth pillar)
- Gender Development Index
- Gender Inequality Index
- Multidimensional Poverty Index
This is the first time since UNDP has been measuring the Human Development Index, in 32 years that it has declined for across the world for consequently two years in a row. Candidates preparing for the upcoming IAS Exam must cover Human Development Report UPSC to ensure they are able to answer all related questions.
HDI Rank of India 2021-22
According to the Human Development Report 2021-22 HDI rank of India is 132nd, among 191 countries. The HDR was titled as "Uncertain Times, Unsettled Lives: Shaping our Future in a Transforming World". The Special report released for 2022 has been titled 'New Threats to Human Society in the Anthropocene' expresses the feeling of security and safety is at a minimum in the majority of the country, counting in the richest countries in spite of their surged level of success.
The Special Report of HDR surveys numerous threats that have moved to have become more eminent in these years comprising digital technologies, conflicts, inequalities, and the potential of the healthcare system to manage new ordeals like the COVID pandemic. The HDR report also reinstates the strong connection between the turning down levels of trust and insecurities. Individuals with a surged level of insecurities are more likely to find others reliable and dependable.
HDI Rank of India 2020
The Human Development Report (HDR) 2020 was launched in December 2020. The Human Development Report set off dialogue in all places of the world, advancing debate amongst the prominent policy-makers at the highest level of politics comprising numerous heads of state.
The Human Development Report (HDR) 2020 is titled “The Next Frontier- Human Development and the Anthropocene”. India secured the rank of 131 out of 189 countries in accordance with the Human Development Report 2020. Possessing the rank of 131, with a value of 0.645 India lies in the medium category of human development.
Human Development Report - India's Future Prospects
The Human Development Report by UNDP emphasizes that people and their abilities should be the main evaluation of the growth of a nation based on three basic parameters of Development in Human Beings- long and healthy lives, the ability to access information, and an acceptable standard of life.
- India could climb eight spots in the rankings.
- Under the Paris Agreement, India has pledged to cut down the emissions intensity of its GDP from its 2005 levels of 33-35% before 2030 and to get 40% of electricity generation production from non-fossil fuel sources by 2030.
- Solar power in India has increased from 2.6 gigawatts in March 2014 to 30 gigawatts as of July 2019, surpassing its goal of 20 gigawatts just four years ahead of schedule.
- In the year 2019, India came in fifth place for the capacity of solar panels installed.
- The National Solar Mission seeks to increase the use of solar energy for power generation and other uses to make solar energy compared with fossil fuel-based alternatives.
Human development is on the rise - there is an increase in the number of girls and women pursuing higher education, there are more economically empowered women now, there is greater bargaining power for children in families, and poverty is being reduced gradually.
The Human Development Index [HDI] is an essential topic for the UPSC exam, Prelims, and Mains. The questions are expected from this topic in the UPSC exam. The questions are usually related to HDI and its key aspects. The candidates must have a hold of the essential and comprehensive topics to be able to answer all the questions in the stipulated time period.
You can also go through the Economy notes for UPSC, and add on the essential points from the recommended books. The candidates must be solving the previous year papers to identify the trend of the questions and the pattern asked in the exam.