Exclusive Economic Zone [EEZ] - Full Form, Meaning, EEZ UPSC Notes

By K Balaji|Updated : October 29th, 2022

In India, the Exclusive Economic Zone [EEZ] is mapped by the Ministry associated with the EEZ program India. The UNCLOS (United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea) is an entity that regulates the use of the oceans and seas around the globe. The Exclusive Economic Zone forms an eminent and integral part of the UPSC syllabus. The aspirants must prepare well for this topic to be able to gain attain good grades in the exam. The zones also establish limited control in terms of law enforcement within the specified zone, allowing countries control over immigration, pollution, customs, and taxation.

Exclusive Economic Zone gives the right of innocent passage (one that does not prejudice the security, peace, and good order) to foreign ships passing through these waters. The United States defines its Exclusive Economic Zone under U.S. fisheries laws.It has formulated a regulatory framework and a comprehensive regime of laws and rules governing the usage of water bodies. An Exclusive Economic Zone [EEZ] is an area of the ocean defined by the UNCLOS over which a specific nation has some rights.

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What is Exclusive Economic Zone [EEZ]?

The 1982 Law of the UNCLOS defines an Exclusive Economic Zone as a zone in the ocean over which a nation enjoys rights that allow using and exploring marine resources including wind and water energy generation and natural gas and oil extraction.

The country also has the responsibility to conserve the living and non-living resources in the zone under this law. This zone is adjacent to and past the territorial sea from the baseline which is generally measured with the help of official charts.

What is the EEZ full form?

The EEZ full form is the Exclusive Economic Zone, it reiterates the right of a country over the exclusive area of the ocean in which they are permitted for exploring the maritime resources and enforcing the laws in the country.

The convention is presently recognized globally as a treaty that handles matters related to the laws of the sea. It has been ratified by 164 UN member states and other parties. India ratified the law in 1995, under which it sets the limit of territorial waters.

Significance of Exclusive Economic Zones

The Exclusive Economic Zone [EEZ] is the 18th largest in the world covering Mainland India, Lakshadweep, and Andaman-Nicobar Islands Ministry of Earth Sciences Geoscientific Study of the Indian Exclusive Economic Zone Programme.

The program maps the EEZ using the multibeam swath bathymetry technology, assesses the potential of resources in the zone, and builds a database of marine geosciences for future projects.

Exclusive Economic Zone [EEZ] - Powers, Roles & Responsibilities

The Exclusive Economic Zone [EEZ] of a country starts at the edge of the sea, extending outward to a distance of 200 n-mi from the baseline. It stretches into the sea ending at 12 n-mi from the baseline which means it includes the contiguous zone.

  • This part of Exclusive Economic Zone gives limited control to the nation in terms of law enforcement.
  • It can only enforce laws in areas of immigration, pollution, customs, and taxation. The territorial sea and the coast beyond 200 miles are not covered under the EEZ.
  • Within the zone, the nation enjoys rights over natural resources and has jurisdiction over activities for reasons like environmental protection.
  • Exclusive Economic Zone establishes a law of the sea, giving sovereign nations special rights and privileges when it comes to exploring minerals and resources within their respective zones.


The candidates preparing for the IAS exam must be well versed with the EEZ meaning, definitions and other pertinents. It forms as integral and eminent part of the UPSC syllabus. The questions pertaining from this topic can be asked in prelims and mains exam.

Exclusive Economic Zone [EEZ] UPSC PDF

The aspirants must solve the UPSC previous year's papers in order to get a clear view and an impeccable picture of the types of questions asked from these topics. Download the EEZ UPSC notes for efficient and comprehensive preparation

Important Notes for UPSC
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FAQs on Exclusive Economic Zone

  • In the exclusive economic zone, a particular country possesses the rights and authority to explore the marine resources. They can also enforce laws in that particular zone. This program unleashes the potential possessed by the resources, and formulates a database of geosciences for future resources.

  • The EEZ full form is Exclusive Economic Zone, it reinstates the right possessed by the nation on a zone of ocean. It facilitates the sovereign of a nation, special rights and privileges. The significance of the EEZ is to explore geosciences and maintain a database.

  • The Exclusive Economic Zones are the areas of ocean in which the country possesses an exclusive right that permits the exploration of marine resources. Yes, the residents of the country enjoying control over the Exclusive Economic Zone [EEZ] are allowed to fish.

  • The largest Exclusive Economic Zone [EEZ] belongs to France as it possesses several overseas territories and departments. The nation possessing the Exclusive Economic Zone can enforce laws in that zone.

  • The exclusive economic zone is the area or zone that possesses the India has an Exclusive Economic Zone [EEZ] of approximately 2.4 million square km. In the Exclusive Economic Zone the country possesses the rights of enforcing law and is also permitted for exploring the marine resources in that zone.

  • By definition, Exclusive Economic Zone [EEZ] should not overlap as they are exclusive. However, countries can dispute the extent of their EEZ. The countries should negotiate and agree to maintain a maritime boundary in such a case.

  • The candidates can get complete details of the Exclusive Economic Zones as it is an integral part of the UPSC syllabus. The candidates must be well acquainted with the core concepts and fundamentals to attain good grades in the IAS exam.

  • The Exclusive Economic Zone unleashes the potential of the resources and formulates a database  for future geoscientific approaches. The country possessing the exclusive economic zone possesses the right over the zone of the ocean and is permitted to explore the marine resources.

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