What is Exclusive Economic Zone [EEZ]?
The 1982 Law of the UNCLOS defines an Exclusive Economic Zone as a zone in the ocean over which a nation enjoys rights that allow using and exploring marine resources including wind and water energy generation and natural gas and oil extraction.
The country also has the responsibility to conserve the living and non-living resources in the zone under this law. This zone is adjacent to and past the territorial sea from the baseline which is generally measured with the help of official charts.
What is the EEZ full form?
The EEZ full form is the Exclusive Economic Zone, it reiterates the right of a country over the exclusive area of the ocean in which they are permitted for exploring the maritime resources and enforcing the laws in the country.
The convention is presently recognized globally as a treaty that handles matters related to the laws of the sea. It has been ratified by 164 UN member states and other parties. India ratified the law in 1995, under which it sets the limit of territorial waters.
Significance of Exclusive Economic Zones
The Exclusive Economic Zone [EEZ] is the 18th largest in the world covering Mainland India, Lakshadweep, and Andaman-Nicobar Islands Ministry of Earth Sciences Geoscientific Study of the Indian Exclusive Economic Zone Programme.
The program maps the EEZ using the multibeam swath bathymetry technology, assesses the potential of resources in the zone, and builds a database of marine geosciences for future projects.
Exclusive Economic Zone [EEZ] - Powers, Roles & Responsibilities
The Exclusive Economic Zone [EEZ] of a country starts at the edge of the sea, extending outward to a distance of 200 n-mi from the baseline. It stretches into the sea ending at 12 n-mi from the baseline which means it includes the contiguous zone.
- This part of Exclusive Economic Zone gives limited control to the nation in terms of law enforcement.
- It can only enforce laws in areas of immigration, pollution, customs, and taxation. The territorial sea and the coast beyond 200 miles are not covered under the EEZ.
- Within the zone, the nation enjoys rights over natural resources and has jurisdiction over activities for reasons like environmental protection.
- Exclusive Economic Zone establishes a law of the sea, giving sovereign nations special rights and privileges when it comes to exploring minerals and resources within their respective zones.
EEZ UPSC Notes
The candidates preparing for the IAS exam must be well versed with the EEZ meaning, definitions and other pertinents. It forms as integral and eminent part of the UPSC syllabus. The questions pertaining from this topic can be asked in prelims and mains exam.
The aspirants must solve the UPSC previous year's papers in order to get a clear view and an impeccable picture of the types of questions asked from these topics. Download the EEZ UPSC notes for efficient and comprehensive preparation
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