Multiple Choice Questions On Evolution And Behaviour
Consider the following statement in light of Natural selection:
A) Selection may be directional, stabilizing, or disruptive
B) The direction of adaptive evolution is uncoupled from the direction of variation.
C) The new variation that is created by recombination and mutation are largely directional, and adaptively directed in direction of fit individuals
D) There is much evidence that mutations occur particularly in the direction of novel adaptive requirements such as the increase in the frequency of drug-resistant, relative to drug-susceptible, HIV.
Which of the following statements are correct?
- a and b
- b and c
- b, c and d
- a, b and d
- Western Blotting
A) One way to make the resistance gene recessive might be to apply the pesticide in large doses.
B) One way to make the resistance gene recessive might be to apply the pesticide in low doses.
C) If pesticides are applied in some places but not others, the non-resistant genotypes will have a selective advantage in the localities where there is no pesticide. The average fitness of the resistant genotype will then not be so high, relative to the non-resistant genotype.
D) If pesticides are applied indiscriminately in the whole region, the resistant genotypes will have a selective advantage in the localities where there is no pesticide. The average fitness of the resistant genotype will increase relative to the nonresistant genotype.
Which of the following combinations are true according to the "dose/refuge strategy"?
- a and c
- b and d
- d and a
- a and b
Consider the following characters:
(A) A dolphin flipper and a fish fin.
(B) The five-digit skeletal structure of the dolphin flipper and of a frog foot.
(C) The white underside colouration of gulls, albatrosses, and ospreys (all of which are seabirds and catch fish by air raids from above).
(D) The number of vertebrae in the necks of camels, mice, and humans (they all have seven vertebrae).
Which of the following are homologies and which analogies, in the pre-Darwinian sense of the terms?
- Homology: A, C Analogy: B, D
- Homology: A, D Analogy: B, C
- Homology: B, C Analogy: A, D
- Homology: B, D Analogy: A, C
Which among the above sets of conditions are best suited for mimicry to be successful?
- Condition A
- Condition B
- Condition C
- Condition D
- Batesean mimicry
- Group selection
Pink salmon (Onchorhynchus gorbuscha) in the Pacific Northwest have been decreasing in size in recent years. In 1945, fishermen started being paid by the pound, rather than per individual, for the salmon they caught, and they increased the use of gill netting, which selectively takes larger fish. The selectivity of gill netting can be shown by comparing the average size of salmon taken by gill netting with those taken by an unselective fishing technique: the difference ranged from 0.14-0.22 kg. Therefore, after gill netting was introduced, smaller salmon had a higher chance of survival. The selection favouring small size in the salmon population was intense because the fishing effort is highly efficient an about 75-80% of the adult salmon swimming up the rivers under investigation were caught in these years. The average weight of salmon duly decreased, by about one-third, in the next 25 years. This is an example in favour of:
- Disruptive selection
- Frequency-dependent selection
- Directional selection
- Stabilizing selection
Based on the above phylogeny and the distribution of red and blue character states among the extant species, and using the principle of parsimony, which of the following is the correct inference about the plumage colour of the ancestor at the root P?
- The ancestral state at P is blue.
- The ancestral state at P is red.
- The ancestral state at P is more likely to be red than blue.
- The ancestral state at P is equally likely to be red or blue.
- 0.1 and 0.9
- 0.2 and 0.8
- 0.4 and 0.6
- 0.5 and 0.5
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