Electoral Reforms In India

By : Neha Dhyani

Updated : May 20, 2022, 5:53

India is one of the largest democracies in the world. The power in a democratic country lies with its citizens as they are equipped with the ability to choose representatives and change the government - what better way to enhance the democracy of a country than to provide people with fundamental electoral rights.

What are Electoral Reforms In India?

Electoral Reforms In India are a testament to the evolution and optimistic changes in the election process to promote fair competition, the practice of clean politics, give equal representation, etc. Articles 324-329 in the Indian constitution cover the Electoral Reforms In India. The Electoral Reforms In India can be divided into two major phases before 2010 and after 2010.

Electoral Reforms In India Before 2010

  • According to the 61st Constitutional Amendment Act of 1988, the voting age was officially reduced and 21 years to 18 years for Lok Sabha and assembly elections.
  • Electronic voting machines were implemented by a provision made in 1989.
  • The election commission 1993 issued the use of the elector's photo identity card or EPIC to make the electoral process more straightforward and efficient.
  • Upon violating the National Honour Act of 1971, the candidate will be disqualified for six years from contesting any state legislatures or Parliament elections.
  • In 1989 a provision was made for adjournment of a poll or countermanding elections in case of booth capturing.
  • There was a ban on the sale of liquor within the polling for 48 hours.
  • In 1980, a provision was made that stated any staff or officers involved in the preparation, correction, or revision of the electoral process will be considered on the delegation of the election commission during the employment period.
  • In 1988 there was a hike in the number of candidates for elections to legislative councils and Rajya Sabha.
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Electoral Reforms In India After 2010

  • The election commission put a restriction on the election expenditure. The Lok Sabha election was 50 to 70 lakhs, and for assembly elections, it was 20 to 28 lakhs.
  • Jan 25th was to be observed as National Voters Day to mark the founding of the Election Commission.
  • In 2013, the Election Commission decided to expand the postal ballot services in the country.
  • Before the 2019 Lok Sabha elections, the EC announced that the exit poll results would only be broadcasted after completing the final phase of elections.
  • NOTA or none of the above was introduced as a ballot option.
  • In January 2018, the government of India made the election funding more transparent by introducing an electron bond scheme.
  • VVPAT or Voter Verified Paper Audit Trail was introduced to help voters verify if their vote was cast correctly.
  • Candidates who declare false information in the affidavit are liable to punishment of imprisonment of up to 6 months, a hefty fine, or both.

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The Electoral Reforms In India have made the election process much safer for both voters and the candidates. Moreover, it has regulated the electoral process to eliminate malpractices involved during elections.

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FAQs on Electoral Reforms In India

Q1. With regards to Electoral Reforms In India, where was the first EVM used?

With regards to Electoral Reforms In India, The first Electronic Voting Machines were used in 1999 during these general elections to the Assembly of Goa.

Q2. In the context of Electoral Reforms In India, what power did NOTA give to the voters?

In the context of Electoral Reforms In India, NOTA was introduced in India after the 2013 Supreme Court ruling of People's Union For Civil Liberties v. Union of India Judgement. Voters use this ballot option to state their disapproval of all candidates contesting the elections.

Q3. Name any one major challenge in the Indian electoral system brought about by Electoral Reforms In India.

Political parties often use muscle power to intimidate voters During pre-elections or post-elections. They also resort to booth capturing to ensure their win in the polls is a major challenge in the Indian electoral system brought about by Electoral Reforms In India.

Q4. Keeping in mind the Electoral Reforms In India, state any one feature of the Dinesh Goswami committee.

Keeping in mind the Electoral Reforms In India, A model of conduct for parties/candidates will be designed to resolve issues relating to the use of transport media, office machinery, and finances during elections.