Central Armed Police Force (CAPF)

By Hemant Kumar|Updated : March 12th, 2020

Central Armed Police Forces under the Administrative control of Ministry of Home affairs. There are two types’ of forces: Border Guarding Forces and Non-Border Guarding Forces

Border Guarding Forces

  1. Assam Rifles:
    • Guards the Indo-Myanmar border
    • The Assam Rifles raised as Catchar Levy in 1835 us the oldest Central Para Military forces in India.
    • The Force was raised primarily to guard the alluvial plains of Assam from the wild and unruly tribes inhabiting the surrounding hill tracts.
    • The Assam Rifles' contribution towards the assimilation of the people of the northeast into the national mainstream is truly monumental.
  2. Border security forces (BSF):
    • Guards the Indo-Pakistan and Indo-Bangladesh borders
    • The Border Security force was raised in 1965 with the strength of 25 battalions and 3 Coys. Over the years, the Force has grown in size, and as on date, it has 186 battalions including 3 NDRF battalions, five major training institutions, 11 subsidiary training centres, and 03 minor training centres
  3. Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP):
    • Guards the Indo-China border
    • The ITBP was raised in the wake of Chinese aggression in 1962 with a modest strength of 4 Bns under an integrated guerilla-cum-intelligence-cum-fighting force' self-contained in supplies, communication, and intelligence collection
    • They are deployed along the Himalayas from Karakoram Pass in Ladakh to Jachep La in Arunachal Pradesh
    • Most of the officers and men in ITBP are professionally trained mountaineers and skiers
  4. Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB):
    • Guards the Indo-Bhutan and Indo-Nepal borders
    • The Sashastra Seema Bal is the newest border guarding Force of India entrusted with the patrolling of Indo-Nepal and Indo-Bhutan borders.
    • They are guarding Indo-Nepal border since 2001 and was also given the additional responsibility of guarding Indo-Bhutan border in 2004

Non-Border Guarding Forces

  1. Central Industrial Security Force (CISF):
    • Provides security for vital installations
    • Raised in 1969
    • CISF is providing security cover to 303 units, including 59 domestic and international airports and fire protection cover to 87 industrial undertakings.
  1. Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF):
    • Deployed for maintaining internal security
    • The CRPF was formed in July 1939 at Neemuch as the Crown representative's Police.
    • After Independence it was renamed as the Central Reserve Police Force and Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel, the then Home Minister had visualized a multidimensional role
  1. National security Guard (NSG):
    • Deployed for anti-terrorist activities
    • Terrorism, both domestic and international raised its head in the west during the seventies
    • It manifested in many forms, including the hijacking of aircraft, the taking of hostage, the assassination of dignitaries, and others.
    • The need for creating an extraordinary force for executing surgical operations based on tactical intelligence was felt in India when Operation Bluestar was carried out by the army at the Golden Temple, Amritsar in 1984
    • NSG was conceptualized and created after studying and analyzing special Force like SAS in the united kingdom, GIGN in France, GSG-9 in Germany, and Delta force in the USA.

Issues associated with it

  • Majority of the higher posts in the armed forces are filled by deputations (IPS officers), who most of the times failed to take adequate steps for the welfare of the cadre officers
  • There are higher vacancies and a lack of promotional prospects, which in turn affect the morale and efficiency of forces and reflect a lack of foresight, planning, and proactive estimation of future jobs.
  • There is an absence of in-house grievance redressal mechanism, which prompted a soldier from BSF in 2017 to use social media to raise his concerns
  • Lack of coordination between the state police and the CAPF leaderships
  • CRPF is deployed for maintaining law and order situation in the states. The continuous deployment of training companies in the state affects the operational efficiency of the CRPF.
  • Lack of electricity at several installations of Border out Posts (BOPs), seriously affect the working conditions of the personnel and the operation of the CAPFs
  • For instance, an inquiry on a 2010 incident in Dantewada, found that the Force's camp lacked necessary facilities, had minimal security and deplorable living conditions. It affects the morale of the forces
  • There is a problem in road connectivity due to delays in obtaining forest/wildlife clearances, hard rock stretches, limited working season, and difficulties in the availability of construction material. It affects the mobility of CAPF personnel
  • There are a lot of delays in procurement of combat-ready equipment and inadequate medical facilities, especially when personnel are deployed in a hostile environment


  • Standing Committee on Home Affairs headed by Mr P. Chidambaram submitted its report on working conditions in Central Armed Police Forces.
  • The recommendations of the committee are
  • Ending IPS hegemony by deploying officers from the Armed Forces on deputation
  • Modernization of the Force must be given priority as Force not only has to face enemies from across the border but also the vagaries of nature.
  • Issue Specific Counter Plan rather than One-Size fits All Approach
  • For example, For J&K, MHA should adopt a multi-pronged strategy that prevents youth from joining militancy, curbs their Financing, and simultaneously launch counter-insurgency operation
  • For the left-wing area, MHA should make efforts to procure mine-resistant vehicles. It could be done through import or domestic manufacturing under the Make in India scheme
  • The expert should do cadre review to maintain the organizational structure and ensure completion of the project in a time-bound manner.
  • Setting up of Dedicated Research and Development Wing to deal with the issues important to the CRPF like improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs), and bulletproofing of vehicles.

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Ravindra Singh Chahar
Sir hindi me bi provide kr diya kro
Vikas Srivastava
Their head quarter
Kaustav Ranjan
sir course kab available hoga and purchase kaha sn kare
Dilbar Bhandari
Is there any classes going for CAPF AC 2020?

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