13th Major Port of India

By Shivank Goel|Updated : September 14th, 2022

Ports in coastal regions are an essential mode of transportation because they allow countries to move goods and people from coast to coast. As a result, ports play a crucial role in developing a country.

India is a peninsula with a southern region surrounded on three sides by water. The Bay of Bengal surrounds it on the east, the Arabian Sea on the west, and the Indian Ocean on the south. This type of setting necessitates trade from the coasts. India has 13 ports spread out along these coastlines. This includes Goa, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal, and Odisha's coastlines.

Download List of 13th Major Port of India Notes PDF

Amid the global pandemic, the Union Cabinet gave a green signal to construct India's 13th port. Vadhavan, Maharashtra, will be the site of India's 13th port. The total cost of developing India's 13th port at Vadhavan is estimated to be around 65,544.54 crores.

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How will the 13th Port in India be Developed?

The landlord model will be used to develop India's 13th port, Vadhavan. The port authorities lease the infrastructure to private companies under this model. It is a hybrid model of public-private collaboration. The port's operations are also carried out by private companies, with the publicly governed port serving as the regulatory body. In this way, the port is kept in good condition, and private companies install cargo-handling equipment. The landlord or the publicly governed port authority receives a portion of the revenue generated by private companies. The government will own 51 percent of the project.

Location of the 13th port in India

The 13th port of India is located 190 kilometers north of JNPT (Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust), 160 kilometers west of Nashik, and 180 kilometers south of Surat. This prestigious port development will boost the country's maritime trade. In addition, the strategic location choice will significantly reduce logistics costs.

The Need for the 13th port in India

The 13th port in India is being built in response to an increase in the demand for container cargo capacity. Cargo ships' storage containers range in length from 20 to 40 feet and width from 8 feet. The current ports in Maharashtra cannot meet the 25 million TEU (twenty-foot equivalent units) capacity requirement expected by 2030.

India does not have a deep seaport with a deep draught. Ports with deep draughts can accommodate large cargo vessels. Large cargo container ships arriving in India currently unload their cargo either in Singapore or in Colombo. India must build its own port with a depth of at least 18 to 20 meters. Vadhavan, the 13th port of India, will have a deep draught of 20 meters.

The majority of India's trade is conducted via maritime routes. In India, there is an ongoing need to develop ports. With an expected increase in cargo traffic, Vadhavan, the 13th port of India, will aid in the smooth operation of maritime trade. India is also attempting to break the record of being the country with the top ten container ports in the world.

List of 13 Major Ports in India

India has 200 designated minor and intermediate ports, in addition to 13 large ports. Ports are essential to the growth of the economy as a whole. Approximately 95% by volume and 70% by value of India's overseas trade is transported via the sea.

India has 13 major ports;

  1. Kolkata Port
  2. Paradip Port
  3. New Mangalore Port
  4. Cochin Port
  5. Jawaharlal Nehru Port
  6. Mumbai Port
  7. Kandla Port
  8. Vishakhapatnam Port
  9. Chennai Port
  10. Tuticorin port
  11. Ennore Port
  12. Mormugao Port
  13. Port Blair Port.

The eastern coast is home to Kolkata, Paradeep, Vishakhapatnam, Chennai, Tuticorin, and Ennore, while the western coast is home to Mumbai, Kandla, JNPT, Mangalore, Momagao, and Cochin. Andaman and Nicobar islands contain Port Blair.

Below is a collection of interesting facts regarding these ports for preliminary exams:

  • Kolkata Port: India's sole major riverine port. Known for its twin dock systems, the Haldia Dock Complex (HDC) on the western bank and the Kolkata Dock System (KDS) on the eastern bank of the Hooghly River.
  • Paradip Port: Odisha's Paradip Port is situated on the Bay of Bengal at the confluence of the river Mahanadi. It was India's first significant port to open on the East Coast after independence.
  • New Mangalore Port: At the confluence of the Gurupura River and the Arabian Sea in Panambur, Karnataka is where the New Mangalore Port is situated.
  • Cochin Port: The South-West coast of India's Willington island is home to Cochin Port, which is situated at the intersection of the East-West Ocean commerce. The port is referred to as the natural entryway to South-West India's enormous industrial and agricultural markets.
  • Jawaharlal Nehru Port: India's largest container port, commonly known as Nhava Sheva, handles around half the containers of all significant ports. It can be reached via Thane creek and is situated off Elephanta Island on the eastern coast of Mumbai Harbor.
  • Mumbai Port: It is India's earliest modern port. Shivaji's navies made use of the area at first.
  • Kandla Port: After the partition, the port at Kandla was constructed because Karachi, on the western coast, had been given to Pakistan. It is renowned for managing a sizable portion of India's imports of crude oil.
  • Vishakhapatnam Port: Andhra Pradesh's Vizag port is renowned for handling bulk cargo on the east coast.
  • Chennai Port: The biggest port in the Bay of Bengal is Chennai Port, which is also India's second-largest port after JNPT. On the east coast, it is the biggest port.
  • Tuticorin Port: V.O.Chidambaranar Port is the new name for this port. The Gulf of Mannar is where it is situated. It is the sole port in South India that offers a weekly direct container connection to the US is Tuticorin.
  • Ennore Port: Kamarajar Port Limited is the new name for this port. It is the country's first corporate port and is established as a public business, with the government owning 68% of the company.
  • Mormugao Port: The main port in India for the export of iron ore is Mormugao in Goa.
  • Port Blair Port: India's 13th and newest major port, Port Blair, was designated as such in 2010. The port, which is closer to two major shipping lines--Saudi Arabia-Singapore and US-Singapore--is strategically significant to India.

What is the Difference between the Major Ports and Minor Ports?

India now has 200 recognized minor and intermediary ports, in addition to 13 major ports. The volume of traffic is not strictly related to these terms. For instance, the little Gujarati port of Mundra has recorded traffic volumes that are significantly higher than some of the major ports. Administrative significance can be found in the division of Indian ports into major, minor, and intermediate. Maritime transportation is governed by both the State and the Central governments because it is on the "concurrent list" of the constitution.

Therefore, the minor and intermediate ports are managed by the concerning ministries or departments in the nine coastal states, namely West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Kerala, Goa, Gujarat, and Maharashtra, while the Union Shipping Ministry oversees the larger ports. Numerous of the 200 minor and intermediate ports are only "notified"; there is little to no actual freight handling there.

Other Important UPSC Notes
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India’s Foreign PolicyConstitution Amendment Bill
Order of Precedence in IndiaBlue Dot Network UPSC
Satavahana DynastyBrahmaputra River System
Defamation Law in IndiaDelhi Durbar 1911
Forest (Conservation) Act 1980Immoral Traffic Prevention Act (ITPA) 1956

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FAQs on 13th Major Port of India

  • The 13th port in India is Vadhavan port in Maharashtra. A special purpose vehicle (SPV) with Jawaharlal Nehru Port as the primary partner would be used to develop the port. The SPV will provide connectivity to the hinterland and construct the infrastructural facilities, including reclamation and breakwater construction.

  • There is a projection of increased port traffic in India by 2025. To suffice this need and enhance maritime trade, the 13th port in India is being developed. To cater for the need for larger container ships, a deep draught port is thought to be necessary. The expansion of this port will make cargo container ships with a capacity of 16,000–25,000 TEUs possible. India will join the nations with the best ten container ports in the world after the Vadhavan port is developed.

  • The 13th Major seaport was established in Vadhavan in Maharashtra. It has been constructed under the Centre’s Sagarmala initiative, which envisages making Indian ports a great contributor to the country’s GDP.

  • The development of the 13th port in India follows the “landlord model” with a public-private partnership. A special purpose vehicle (SPV) with Jawaharlal Nehru Port as the primary partner would be used to develop the port. The development of Vadhavan Port won't receive any financial assistance from the Indian government. GST, preliminary pre-operative costs, contingencies, working capital, and interest during construction (IDC) are all included in the estimated project cost, which comes to a total of Rs65,544.54 crore. The internal return rate (IRR) is predicted to be about 16.90%.

  • Mumbai Port in Maharashtra is the largest major port in India. Mumbai Port, India's second-oldest port, has been in operation since 1873. (Kolkata being the oldest). It also serves as India's largest port in terms of size, with a 46.3-hectare area with piers that extend for up to 8,000 kilometers. The 13th major port of India will be in Maharashtra as well.

  • Jawaharlal Nehru port, on the Eastern shore of Mumbai, Maharashtra, is the largest artificial port in India. The 13th major port of India will be in Wadhavan, making it the state’s third major port.

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