Which of the Following are Ingot Defects?

 A relatively pure substance, usually metal, is cast into an appropriate shape for subsequent processing to create an ingot. It is the first stage of the semi-finished casting products used in the production of steel. To generate a functional end product, ingots typically require a second shaping process, such as cold/hot working, cutting, or milling. When cast using mold-based techniques, non-metallic and semiconductor materials that are created in bulk form may also be referred to as ingots.

Answer - Pipes, cracks, and scabs are ingot defects.

It is now widely accepted that ingot defects like hot tears or cracks have their origins in the development of the solid shell. Damages occur as a result of rivalry between the solidifying skin under tensile stresses and strain conditions and the hydrostatic pressure within the turbulent flow of the liquid zone. The thermal energy that the mold extracts from the cast product also significantly affects the thickness of the shell.

It is based on the expansion of the air gap caused by the solidifying metal's shrinking and the deformation of the mold's components. Additionally, during the pouring step, it is possible to put mold flux between the mold and ingot shell, which also affects the heat exchanges. Pipes, cracks, and scabs are ingot defects.

Summary: 

Which of the Following are Ingot Defects?

Pipes, cracks, and scabs are flaws in ingots. Damages happen as a result of competition between the hydrostatic pressure within the turbulent flow of the liquid zone and the solidifying skin under tensile stresses and strain conditions.

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