What are the social causes of the Russian Revolution?

By Ritesh|Updated : September 7th, 2022

The revolution can be seen in two distinct phases: The February Revolution of 1917, which ousted the autocracy of Czar Nicholas II of Russia, the last effective Czar of Russia, and sought to establish a liberal republic in its place.

  • The October Revolution, in which the Bolshevik Party and workers' soviets led by Vladimir Lenin overthrew the Provisional Government.
  • While many important historical events took place in Moscow and St. Petersburg, there was also a broad-based movement in rural areas as peasants occupied and redistributed land.

Social Causes of the Russian Revolution

  • The social causes of the Russian Revolution stemmed primarily from centuries of oppression of the lower classes by the tsarist regime and Nicholas's failures in World War I.
  • While rural agrarian peasants were freed from serfdom in 1861, they were still reluctant to pay ransom to the State, demanding a municipal tender for the land they were working on.
  • There was increasing peasant unrest and sometimes outright uprisings to secure ownership of their land.
  • Russia consisted mostly of poor peasants, with 1.5% of the population owning 25% of the land.
  • Between 1890 and 1910, the population of the capital, St. Petersburg, grew from 1,033,600 to 1,905,600, with Moscow experiencing similar growth.
  • One survey in 1904 found that an average of sixteen people shared each apartment in St. Petersburg, with six people per room.
  • There was no running water, and piles of human waste threatened the workers' health.
  • The First World War then only added to the chaos. Conscription gripped the unwillingness in all parts of Russia.
  • The demand for factory production of war supplies and workers caused much more labor unrest and strikes.
  • The draft took away skilled workers to be replaced by unskilled peasants, and then when famine began, workers left the cities in droves in search of food.
  • Finally, the soldiers, suffering from a lack of equipment and protection from the elements, were dissatisfied with Russia's miscalculation of the war.
  • The social causes of the Russian Revolution stemmed primarily from centuries of oppression of the lower classes by the tsarist regime and Nicholas's failures in the First World War.
  • Moreover, socialist ideas that challenged the status quo led the Russian people to revolt against the autocratic regime of the Tsar.

Summary:

What are the social causes of the Russian Revolution?

The tsarist regime's centuries-long mistreatment of the lower classes and Nicholas's failings in World War I are the social causes of the Russian Revolution.

  • Rural agricultural peasants were liberated from serfdom in 1861, yet they were hesitant to give the State a ransom.
  • They requested that the land they worked on be put up for a municipal tender.

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