Tughlaq Dynasty: Rulers, Reforms, Founder, Tughlaq Dynasty UPSC Notes

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: November 14th, 2023

India’s Tughlaq dynasty emerged during the medieval period of history, and it was of Turkic or Turco-Mongol origin. Between 1320 and 1413, the dynasty was ruled by many rulers like Muhammad Bin Tughlaq, Ghazi Malik, etc. India’s internal and international policies were transformed significantly with the invasion of the Tughlaq dynasty.

Here in this article, you can get the references of Indian medieval history notes related to the Tughlaq dynasty and different rulers of this time period. You can download this document as a PDF version for your reference while preparing for the IAS exam.

Tughlaq Dynasty

The Tughlaq Dynasty was one of the significant dynasties of the Delhi Sultanate. Before 1320, the Khalji Dynasty used to rule the Delhi Sultanate. Khusro Khan, the last ruler of the Khalji dynasty did not get enough support from Muslim nobles and was overthrown by aristocrats, who invited Ghazi Malik or Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq to remove him from power. Let us learn about the rulers of the Tughlaq Dynasty in the sections below.

Tughlaq Dynasty Rulers

The Delhi sultanate was primarily under the control of the Tughlaq dynasty. It began in 1320, ended in 1413, and was headed by several rulers, including Ghazi Malik and Muhammad Bin Tughlaq. Ghiyasuddin Tuglaq was the founder of the Tughlaq dynasty. Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud Shah Tughlaq was the last ruler of this dynasty.

Tughlaq Dynasty PDF

There were many rulers in the Tughlaq Dynasty; the information about them is shared in the chart given below:

Rulers of the Tughlaq Dynasty Period
Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq 1320-25
Muhammed Bin Tuglaq 1325-51
Feroz Shah Tughlaq 1351-88
Mohammed Khan 1388
Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq Shah II 1388
Abu Bakar Khan 1389-90
Nasiruddin Muhammed 1390-94
Humayun 1394-95
Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud 1395-1412

Founder of Tughlaq Dynasty – Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq

Ghiyasuddin Tuglaq, popularly known as Ghazi Malik, was the founder of the Tughlaq dynasty who restricted the invasion of the Mongols in India several times. His greatest accomplishment was the reinstatement of Ala-ud-din’s legal system. Under the guidance of Mubarak Khilji, Ghiyas-ud-din emerged from obscurity to become the provincial legislative chairman of Dinapur.

  • Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq was the founder of the Tughlaq dynasty. He was popularly known as Ghazi Malik.
  • The policy of Ghazi Malik was quite rough for Mongols. In fact, it is said that Ghiyasuddin killed the messenger of Oljeitu, who was the ruler of Iran and punished the Mongol prisoners very severely.
  • The famous Tughlaqabad fort was also constructed by Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq.
  • Ghiyasuddin had established an administration that was headed by Multanis. This displayed his power base in Punjab and Depalpur.
  • It was Ghiyasuddin who killed Khusrau Khan, the last ruler of the Khilji dynasty.

Domestic and Foreign Administrative Policies of Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq:

  • Ghiyasuddin restored order in his dominion.
  • Law enforcement, agriculture and irrigation arrangements were considered his top priorities.
  • In 1320 A.D., he ascended the throne.
  • The dominions of Odisha, Warangal and Bengal were under his control. Moreover, Prataparudradeva II, the Kakatiya monarch of Warangal, was conquered by Fakhruddin Mohammed Juna Khan (Ghiyasuddin’s son).
  • Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq abducted and imprisoned the invading Mongol chiefs in India.
  • A rebellion in Bengal led by Ghiyasuddin Bahadur was put down by him.
  • An accident caused by the collapse of a wooden pavilion on his return trip from Bengal resulted in his death in 1325.
  • Some historians believe that his vizier Jauna Khan was behind his death.

Muhammad bin Tughlaq

Muhammed Bin Tuglaq is considered an ill-fated ruler as most of his grandiose plans and experiments failed miserably since they were all ill-timed. During his reign, he practised some experiments, which are as follows:

Transfer of the Capital:

  • Muhammad Bin Tughlaq moved his capital from Delhi to Daulatabad in 1327-1328. This transfer was done in two stages – The royal family members were asked to migrate. The rest of the population was shifted to Daulatabad.
  • Modern historians think that the capital was moved from Delhi to Daulatabad because the Sultan desired a city that was far from the north so that it could be protected against Mongol invasions.
  • Mongol invasions posed a threat to Delhi. Hence he chose the Deccan as the location of his capital to enable efficient administration and control newly annexed areas.

The Extent of Transfer:

  • Every citizen of Delhi was mandated to relocate to Daulatabad, according to Barani.
  • Some contemporary historians say that only members of the royal family, courtiers, Sufi saints, scholars, and bureaucrats were requested to relocate to Daulatabad from Delhi and there were no issues for the normal residents.

Problems due to the Capital Transfer:

  • Barani claimed that because of this move, the people of Delhi suffered greatly. He said that half of the people lost their lives while migrating to Daulatabad due to the summer heat, homesickness, and plague, and some died while migrating back.

Bringing the capital back to Delhi:

  • Later the Sultan realized his folly and gave the order for people to return to Delhi.
  • This decision was made because Muhammed Bin Tuglaq found the geopolitical condition at the local level altered.
  • A terrible epidemic of plague destroyed the Deccan part of India, whereas Peninsular India was completely out of control. The epidemic caused a good number of the sultan’s troops to perish.
  • Governors of several provinces proclaimed their Independence. Madurai proclaimed its independence in 1335, while Harihara and Bukka created Vijaynagara in 1336.
  • By this time, Muhammad Bin Tughlaq was not in a position to immediately conquer his territories again. So he returned to Delhi.

Firoz Shah Tughlaq

Firoj Shah Tughlaq was a highly promising ruler in terms of development. Infrastructure development was his priority for his dominion. Also, he renovated the buildings and monuments erected by his predecessors, for example, the Qutub Minar. Feroz Shah is better known for commissioning structures with unusual architectural forms for his time.

  • Firoz Shah Tughlaq was the younger brother of Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq and was born in 1351 A.D. He took the throne when he was 46 years old.
  • Firoz Shah Tughlaq was known for his schemes for the well-being of the populace.
  • There is an autobiography of Feroz Shah Tughlaq named Futuhat-i-Feroz Shahi. Also, he supported the scholar Ziauddin Barani.
  • Under his rule, a number of Sanskrit works on art, science, and medicine were translated into Persian.
  • He initiated various administrative reforms.

Administrative Reforms of Firoz Shah Tughlaq

  • Several reforms and public works projects work were carried out with the help of Khan-e-Jehan Maqbool.
  • Rather than paying monetary salaries to his military officers, he reinstated the Jagir system.
  • Warriors and administrators were granted iqtas and their positions were made hereditary.
  • Since the number of capable warriors had decreased this brought a detrimental effect on the army of Firoz.
  • Through manufacturing operations and royal workshops, Feroz Shah formalized slavery institutions.
  • For the welfare of the people, a separate department called Diwan-i-Bandagan was established.
  • As part of its charity program, the government established the Deewan-i-Khairat to provide assistance to poor people, orphans, widows, and Muslim women who were in need of financial assistance.
  • Free food and medical assistance were provided at Darul Shafa, which was a type of charitable hospital in Delhi.
  • In addition, he founded the Diwan-i-Istihqaq which provided services to people who were in need and underprivileged.

Successors of Firoz Shah Tughlaq:

There were three successors of Firoz Shah Tughlaq. They were:

  1. Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlaq II
  2. Abu Bakr Shah
  3. Nasir-ud-din Muhammad Tughlaq

End of the Tughlaq Dynasty

The successors of Feroz Shah Tughlaq lacked both competencies and might. Many regions of the kingdom attained independence by the end of the 14th century, but Punjab and Delhi continued to be ruled by the Tughlaqs. However, the Tughlaq dynasty was brought to an end with the invasion of Timur in 1398 A.D.

Tughlaq Dynasty UPSC

Tughlaq Dynasty UPSC is a very important topic in the medieval history of the history subject of UPSC Syllabus. Students preparing for the IAS exam need to prepare all the topics in depth. Read this article thoroughly and learn about all the rulers of the Tughlaq Dynasty, along with their administrative reforms, policies, timelines, successors, etc.

Tughlaq Dynasty UPSC Question

Q1. Which ruler of the Tughlaq dynasty died due to the collapse of a wooden structure in the pavilion?

  1. Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq
  2. Muhammed Bin Tughlaq
  3. Qutubuddin Aibak
  4. Firoz Shah Tughlaq

A1. Option A

Q2. For which period did Muhammad Bin Tughlaq rule the Delhi Sultanate?

  1. 1325-51 A.D.
  2. 1320-25 A.D.
  3. 1234-45 A.D.
  4. 1345-68 A.D.

A2. Option A

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