Ahmadiyya Movement UPSC Notes – Socio-Religious Reform Movement in India

By Balaji

Updated on: February 17th, 2023

The Ahmadiyya Movement aimed to improve religious freedom and followed a Messianic movement. A certain Muslim sect named Ahmadiyya came into existence in India. Founded in 1889 by Mirza Ghulam Ahmed in Punjab, the Ahmadiyya Movement seeks to reconcile the Hindu faith with the way of living. The foundations of the Ahmadiyya Movement were liberal values. Similar to the sect of Brahmo Samaj, it devoted itself to the universal religion and opposed jihad. Also, the Ahmadiyya Movement declared itself to be the standard bearer of the Mohammedan renaissance.

The Ahmadiyya Movement is an important topic in Modern History that comes under General Studies Paper 1 of UPSC-CSE. This topic is equally important to both Prelims and Mains exam points of view for the aspirants who will appear in the UPSC 2023 examination. Here we provide complete notes on the Ahmadiyya Movement and cover its related topic such as its historical background, successors of this movement, its belief, etc.

The link to DOWNLOAD the Ahmadiyya Movement Notes is provided below the article.

Table of content

  • 1. What is Ahmadiyya Movement? (more)
  • 2. History of the Ahmadiyya Movement (more)
  • 3. Successors of the Ahmadiyya Movement (more)
  • 4. Beliefs of the Ahmadiyya Movement (more)
  • 5. Split in the Ahmadiyya Movement (more)
  • 6. Conclusion of Ahmadiyya Movement in India (more)
  • 7. Some other Socio-Religious Movements UPSC (more)
  • 8. Wahabi/Waliullah Movement in India (more)
  • 9. Titu Mir Movement – Peasants Movement (more)
  • 10. Faraizi Movement (1818) – Aim and Impact (more)
  • 11. Ahmadiyya Movement UPSC (more)
  • 12. Ahmadiyya Movement UPSC Sample Questions (more)

What is Ahmadiyya Movement?

The renowned Mirza Ghulam Ahmad founded the Ahmadiyya Movement, and it started in 1989 in the province of Punjab, then a part of British India, a modern messianic movement. It was founded on the principles of liberal values, universal religion for all humanity, opposing Jihad, etc.

History of the Ahmadiyya Movement

  • To disperse education from the west among the Muslims of India, Mirza Ghulam Ahmed founded this movement in 1889.
  • This movement was launched on the principles of liberal and ubiquitous religion for the entire human race, the same as in Brahmo Samaj.
  • Not in favor of the polemics from the Arya Samaj, including Christian missionaries, this movement came as a defender of Islam.
  • Ghulam Ahmed claimed to be a Masiha and Mahdi in addition to an embodiment of the Hindu God Krishna and the Christian god Jesus after returning to earth in 1889.
  • After being blamed for disapproving of the Muslim dogma stressing the completeness of Muhammad’s prophethood, the movement sparked fierce opposition from the Sunni mainstream.
  • The dispute was just a doctrinal discord amongst private individuals or voluntary associations during British rule in India.
  • The issue became a major constitutional issue when the major segment of Ahmadis relocated to the Islamic State of Pakistan in 1947.
  • Ahmadis were formally evicted from the Muslim fold as the Sunni Muslim mainstream demanded.
  • The goal of Sunni Muslims was achieved after the parliament of Pakistani presented a Constitutional Amendment to declare the Ahmadis Non-Muslim in 1974.

Successors of the Ahmadiyya Movement

After the death of Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmed in 1908, Khalifa al-Masih was elected as his successor to pilot this movement.

  • The first successor was Hakim Noor-ud-din, who led the movement till his death from 1908 to 1914.
  • The second successor, Hadhrat Mirza Bashir ad-din Mahmud Ahmed (second Khalifa), led the movement from 1914 to 1965.
  • From 1965 to 1982, the third Khalifa, Mirza Nasir, led the movement.
  • From 1982 until 2003, the fourth Khalifa of the movement, Mirza Tahir Ahmed, led the movement.
  • In April 2003, the fifth positioned Khalifa Hadhrat Mirza Masoor Ahmed, was elected and still is the Khalifa.

Beliefs of the Ahmadiyya Movement

The Ahmadiyya Movement cited itself as the typical bearer of the Mohammedan Renaissance and was founded on liberal values. Liberalism from the west, theosophy, and religious Hindu reform movements greatly influenced Ghulam Ahmed.

  • Jihad, or the so-called sacred war against the Non-Muslims, was opposed by the Ahmadiyya, and the significance of human kinship was emphasized.
  • The Ahmadiyya Movement promoted Western liberal education among Indian Muslims by establishing the associative grids of schools and colleges.
  • The sect of Islamists that credit the Messiah as only of the Ahmadiyya Community and to end the religious war and shedding of blood to restore morality, peacefulness, and impartiality, Mirza Ghulam Ahmed came.
  • Also, keeping the mosque segregated from the state, but also in the rights of the humans and tolerance is the belief of the Ahmadiyya Community.
  • Bahaism (an Ahmadiyya Movement) was afflicted by mysticism. In the early 1880s, Ahmed starts mentioning Barahin-i-Ahmadiyah, which defends Islam.
  • More than 75 books in addition to Fath-i-Islam, i.e., The victory of Islam and Izalah-i-Awham, meaning Removal of false opinions. were published by Ahmed.

The movement of Ahmadiyya has been explained as a “messianic sect of Islam”.

The foundational beliefs of the faith are as follows:

  • Ahmadiyya believed this movement was only the incarnation of ‘True Islam’.
  • Jesus will not return the belief of the Ahmadiyya.
  • Jesus was crucified on the cross, but that he did not die is the belief of the Ahmadiyya.
  • Also, according to the Ahmadiyya, ‘the ultimate and only law-bearing prophet’ but they accept that other secondary prophets also exist. For example, Hadhrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmed renewed the teaching of Muhammad.

Split in the Ahmadiyya Movement

  • The Ahmadiyya Movement was segregated into two distinct branches, Ahmadis and the Lahore group in Islam, after the death of the first Khalifa in 1914.
  • The first president, or as they say, “Amir” of the Lahore group, was Muhammad Ali, also referred to as the Anjuman Isha’at-i-Islam (or the Ahmadiyya Movement), led this movement until he died in 1951.
  • This split happened due to the theological disparities amongst the groups as the disputations over the leadership of movements post the passing of a second successor.
  • The Lahore Ahmadis movement is more oriented toward traditional Islam by recognizing Hadhrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmed as a mujahid (reformer) rather than a prophet.

Conclusion of Ahmadiyya Movement in India

The Ahmadiyya Movement is an attempt to correct a Western misconception about Islam and defends Islam. It developed understanding among people of varied faiths by promoting Peace, Love, and, Tolerance.

This movement operates in missionary work across the Indian subcontinent, Indonesia, Kenya, and Nigeria. In addition, the Mosque construction in its community, Health Services, Social Programs, and Educational Institutes are also managed by this movement.

Some other Socio-Religious Movements UPSC

Given below are the socio-religious movements that arise among different communities of Indian citizens. These include

  • Wahabi/Waliullah Movement.
  • Titu Mir Movement.
  • Faraizi Movement.

Wahabi/Waliullah Movement in India

  • This movement called for a return to the true spirit of Islam.
  • This movement is inspired by the teaching of Abdul Wahab of Arabia and the preaching of Shah Waliullah.
  • Later, Syed Ahmad Barelvi and Shah Abdul Aziz further popularised the preaching of Waliullah.
  • The movement was directed at the Sikhs in Punjab before the annexation of Punjab by the British but later started to be directed against the British.
  • The Wahabi’s played an important role in spreading anti-British feelings during the 1857 revolt.

Titu Mir Movement – Peasants Movement

  • Titu Mir was a disciple of Syed Ahmed Barelvi, the Wahhabi movement’s founder.
  • Mir Nithar Ali, popularly known as Titu Mir.
  • He adopted Wahhabism and advocated the Sharia.
  • Titu Mir organized the Muslim peasants of Bengal against mostly Hindu landlords and British indigo planters.

Faraizi Movement (1818) – Aim and Impact

  • The Faraizi Movement was founded by Haji Shariatullah in 1818.
  • Because of its emphasis on the Islamic pillars of faith, the movement is known as Faraizi Movement.
  • The aim was to eradicate social innovations or Un-Islamic practices in East Bengal.
  • From 1840 onwards, the movement became revolutionary under the leadership of Dudu Mian.
  • Dudu Mian urged his followers not to pay rent.

Ahmadiyya Movement UPSC

Ahmadiyya Movement UPSC topic should be learned sincerely from the IAS Exam perspective. It is an important topic of Modern Indian History related to UPSC-CSE Prelims and the Mains Exam point of view.

Here we provide comprehensive notes on the Ahmadiyya Movement UPSC to prepare this or other relevant topics related to Modern Indian History or current affairs. You can also download the NCERT Books for UPSC or Modern Indian History UPSC Notes from here. The history of India is divided into three parts, ancient, medieval, and modern Indian history. Therefore, aspirants should be very clear about the syllabus of history for USPC.

  • Download the Ahmadiyya Movement UPSC PDF from here.

Ahmadiyya Movement UPSC Sample Questions

The Aspirants who appear at UPSC-CSE can also get UPSC Syllabus and UPSC Modern Indian History Books. Here aspirants are also facilitated with UPSC Previous Year Question Paper and other Study Materials.

Question- Which of the following statements is/are correct regarding the Ahmadiyya Movement?

  1. The movement was founded by Mirza Ghulam Ahmed.
  2. The movement described itself as the standard-bearer of the Mohammedan Renaissance.
  3. Movement based on the principles of Brahmo Samaj.
  4. Opposed Jihad and worked to spread western liberal education among Indian Muslims.

Choose the correct options from the given codes-

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 1 and 4 only
  3. 1, 2, and 4 only
  4. 1, 2, 3 and 4

Answer- Option D

Question– Who founded the Ahmaddiya movement among the following personalities?

  1. Sayyid Ahmed Khan
  2. Tuti Mir
  3. Shah Walliullah
  4. Mirza Ghulam Ahmad

Answer- Option D

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