Ahmadiyya Movement UPSC Notes – Socio-Religious Reform Movement in India

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: November 14th, 2023

The Ahmadiyya Movement aimed to improve religious freedom. A certain Muslim sect named Ahmadiyya came into existence in India, founded in 1889 by Mirza Ghulam Ahmed in Punjab. The foundations of the Ahmadiyya Movement were liberal values. Similar to the sect of Brahmo Samaj, it devoted itself to the universal religion and opposed jihad. Also, the Ahmadiyya Movement declared itself to be the standard bearer of the Mohammedan Renaissance.

The Ahmadiyya Movement is an important topic in Modern History that comes under General Studies Paper 1 of UPSC-CSE. This topic is equally important to both Prelims and Mains exam points of view for the aspirants who will appear in the UPSC 2024 examination. Here we provide complete notes on the Ahmadiyya Movement and cover its historical background, successors of this movement, beliefs, etc.

The link to DOWNLOAD the Ahmadiyya Movement Notes is provided below the article.

What is Ahmadiyya Movement?

Mirza Ghulam Ahmad founded the Ahmadiyya Movement, and it started in 1889 in the province of Punjab, British India. It was a modern messianic movement. It was founded on the principles of liberal values, universal religion for all humanity, opposing Jihad, etc.

History of the Ahmadiyya Movement

  • To disperse education from the West among the Muslims of India, Mirza Ghulam Ahmed founded this movement in 1889.
  • This movement was launched on the principles of having a liberal and common religion for the entire human race, the same as in Brahmo Samaj.
  • Ghulam Ahmed claimed to be a Masiha and Mahdi in addition to an embodiment of the Hindu God Krishna and the Christian God Jesus.
  • After being blamed for going against the Muslim dogma stressing the absoluteness of Muhammad’s prophethood, the movement sparked fierce opposition from the Sunni mainstream.
  • The issue became a major constitutional issue when the major segment of Ahmadis relocated to the Islamic State of Pakistan in 1947.
  • Ahmadis were formally evicted from the Muslim fold as the Sunni Muslim mainstream demanded.
  • The goal of Sunni Muslims was achieved after the parliament of Pakistan presented a Constitutional Amendment to declare the Ahmadis Non-Muslim in 1974.

Successors of the Ahmadiyya Movement

After the death of Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmed in 1908, a ‘Khalifa al-Masih’ was elected as his successor to pilot this movement.

  • The first successor was Hakim Noor-ud-din, who led the movement till his death from 1908 to 1914.
  • The second successor, Hadhrat Mirza Bashir ad-din Mahmud Ahmed (second Khalifa), led the movement from 1914 to 1965.
  • From 1965 to 1982, the third Khalifa, Mirza Nasir, led the movement.
  • From 1982 until 2003, the fourth Khalifa of the movement, Mirza Tahir Ahmed, led the movement.
  • In April 2003, Hadhrat Mirza Masroor Ahmed was elected as the fifth and current Khalifa.

Beliefs of the Ahmadiyya Movement

The Ahmadiyya Movement cited itself as the bearer of the Mohammedan Renaissance and was founded on liberal values. Liberalism from the West, theosophy, and religious Hindu reform movements greatly influenced Ghulam Ahmed.

  • Jihad, or the so-called sacred war against the non-Muslims, was opposed by the Ahmadiyya, and the significance of human kinship was emphasized.
  • The Ahmadiyya Movement promoted Western liberal education among Indian Muslims by establishing the associative grids of schools and colleges.
  • The movement preached about keeping the mosque separated from the state and also about the rights of humans and tolerance.
  • More than 75 books in addition to Fath-i-Islam, i.e., The Victory of Islam and Izalah-i-Awham, meaning removal of false opinions were published by Ahmed.

The movement of Ahmadiyya has been explained as a “messianic sect of Islam”.

The foundational beliefs of the faith are as follows:

  • Ahmadiyya believed this movement was only the incarnation of ‘True Islam’.
  • Jesus was crucified on the cross, but that he did not die is one of the beliefs of the Ahmadiyya.

Split in the Ahmadiyya Movement

  • The Ahmadiyya Movement was segregated into two distinct branches, Ahmadis and the Lahore group in Islam, after the death of the first Khalifa in 1914.
  • The first president, or as they say, “Amir” of the Lahore group, was Muhammad Ali, also referred to as the Anjuman Isha’at-i-Islam (or the Ahmadiyya Movement), who led this movement until he died in 1951.
  • This split happened due to the theological differences amongst the groups.
  • The Lahore Ahmadis movement is more oriented toward traditional Islam by recognizing Hadhrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmed as a mujahid (reformer) rather than a prophet.

Conclusion of Ahmadiyya Movement in India

The Ahmadiyya Movement was an attempt to correct the Western misconception about Islam and defends Islam. It developed understanding among people of varied faiths by promoting Peace, Love, and, Tolerance.

This movement operates in missionary work across the Indian subcontinent, Indonesia, Kenya, and Nigeria. In addition, the Mosque construction in its community, Health Services, Social Programs, and Educational Institutes are also managed by this movement.

Some other Socio-Religious Movements UPSC

Given below are the socio-religious movements that arise among different communities of Indian citizens. These include

  • Wahabi/Waliullah Movement.
  • Titu Mir Movement.
  • Faraizi Movement.

Wahabi/Waliullah Movement in India

  • This movement called for a return to the true spirit of Islam.
  • This movement is inspired by the teachings of Abdul Wahab of Arabia and the preaching of Shah Waliullah.
  • Later, Syed Ahmad Barelvi and Shah Abdul Aziz further popularised the preaching of Waliullah.
  • The movement was directed at the Sikhs in Punjab before the annexation of Punjab by the British but later started to be directed against the British.
  • The Wahabis played an important role in spreading anti-British feelings during the 1857 revolt.

Titu Mir Movement – Peasants Movement

  • Titu Mir was a disciple of Syed Ahmed Barelvi, the Wahhabi movement’s founder.
  • Mir Nithar Ali was popularly known as Titu Mir.
  • He adopted Wahhabism and advocated the Sharia.
  • Titu Mir organized the Muslim peasants of Bengal against mostly Hindu landlords and British indigo planters.

Faraizi Movement (1818) – Aim and Impact

  • The Faraizi Movement was founded by Haji Shariatullah in 1818.
  • Because of its emphasis on the Islamic pillars of faith, the movement is known as Faraizi Movement.
  • The aim was to eradicate social innovations or un-Islamic practices in East Bengal.
  • From 1840 onwards, the movement became revolutionary under the leadership of Dudu Mian.
  • Dudu Mian urged his followers not to pay rent.

Ahmadiyya Movement UPSC

Ahmadiyya Movement UPSC topic should be learned from the IAS Exam perspective. It is an important topic of Modern Indian History related to UPSC-CSE Prelims and the Mains Exam point of view.

Here we provide comprehensive notes on the Ahmadiyya Movement UPSC to prepare this or other relevant topics related to Modern Indian History or current affairs. You can also download the NCERT Books for UPSC or Modern Indian History UPSC Notes from here. The history of India is divided into three parts, ancient, medieval, and modern Indian history. Therefore, aspirants should be very clear about the syllabus of history for USPC.

  • Download the Ahmadiyya Movement UPSC PDF from here.

Ahmadiyya Movement UPSC Sample Questions

Question- Which of the following statements is/are correct regarding the Ahmadiyya Movement?

  1. The movement was founded by Mirza Ghulam Ahmed.
  2. The movement described itself as the standard-bearer of the Mohammedan Renaissance.
  3. Movement was based on the principles of Brahmo Samaj.
  4. Opposed Jihad and worked to spread Western liberal education among Indian Muslims.

Choose the correct options from the given codes-

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 1 and 4 only
  3. 1, 2, and 4 only
  4. 1, 2, 3 and 4

Answer- Option D

Question– Who founded the Ahmaddiya movement among the following personalities?

  1. Sayyid Ahmed Khan
  2. Tuti Mir
  3. Shah Walliullah
  4. Mirza Ghulam Ahmad

Answer- Option D

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