Swachh Bharat Abhiyan Essay: Purpose, Swachh Bharat Mission UPSC Notes

By K Balaji|Updated : November 3rd, 2022

The Swachh Bharat Abhiyan is among India's most well-known and prominent missions. On October 2, 2014, the Prime Minister of India, Narendra Modi announced the commencement of this initiative in recognition of Mahatma Gandhi's dream of a clean nation. This Swachh Bharat Abhiyan programme was initially conducted on a nationwide scale in all of the cities, towns, and rural areas.

The Government of India started it in 2014 with the goals of ending open defecation and enhancing solid waste management. It is a revamped version of the 2009 Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan, which was run by Manmohan Singh, Modi's predecessor, but fell short of its goals. This article shall brief about the latest updates along with its future plans and critical facts with which one can easily write a Swachh Bharat Abhiyan essay.

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Swachh Bharat Abhiyan Essay

The Government of India launched the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan, or Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM), or Clean India Mission in 2014 as a national initiative to eradicate open defecation and enhance the management of solid waste. It is a remastered edition of the Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan, which was started by the former PM Manmohan Singh in 2009 but fell short of its goals.

  • The Swachh Bharat Mission's Phase 1 ended in October 2019.
  • Phase 2 has been executed from 2020–2021 through 2024–2025 to help Phase 1's efforts be solidified.

The Swachh Bharat Abhiyan was started by the Indian government with the goal of making India "open-defecation-free" (ODF) by 2 October 2019, marking the 150th birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi. During that time, approximately 89.9 million toilets had been constructed. Aside from eliminating manual scavenging, raising awareness about sanitation standards and changing people's behavior were also goals of the mission's initial phase. Another goal of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan was to increase local capacity.

Swachh Bharat Abhiyan Essay PDF

The Swachh Bharat Mission 2.0 seeks to maintain the elimination of open defecation, enhance solid and liquid waste management, and enhance the working conditions of sanitation personnel. The mission aims to advance toward objective 6.2 of the sixth of the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals, which was established in 2015.

The Swachh Bharat Abhiyan was divided into two sections: urban and rural. The Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation, which is now the Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation under the Ministry of Jal Shakti, was responsible for funding and overseeing "SBM - Gramin" in rural areas. In contrast, the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs was in charge of "SBM - Urban."

Latest Update on Swachh Bharat Abhiyan

The Swachh Bharat Mission 2.0 (Urban) will be introduced under the "Health and Wellbeing" component, the Finance Ministry said in February 2021. In all Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) with a population of less than 1 lakh, a new wastewater treatment component, including fecal sludge management, will be part of the SBM-U phase II.

On September 25, 2019, in New York, Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi won the Gates Foundation's "Global Goalkeeper" award in recognition of the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan campaign.

Swachh Bharat Abhiyan Purpose

The Swachh Bharat Abhiyan's main goal is to raise people's awareness of the value of cleanliness. The Swachh Bharat Abhiyan purpose is to give every citizen with access to safe and sufficient drinking water as well as basic sanitation services like toilets, clean villages, and liquid & solid waste disposal systems.

The Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation established the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan action plan. By 2019, it is intended to increase the number of sanitary facilities. Making India an Open Defecation Free (ODF) is the main reform that needs to be made.

  • By 2019, increase the growth rate of toilets from 3% to 10%.
  • Toilet construction has increased from 14,000 to 48,000 every day.
  • Launch of a National/State-Level Media Campaign to Spread Awareness Using Mobile Telephony, Audio-Visual, and Local Programs.
  • School children participating in education campaigns about water, hygiene, and sanitation.

Swachh Bharat Mission 1.0 (SBM): Urban

The primary details about SBM 1.0 for the urban setting have been given below;

  • Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (Urban), which is overseen by the Ministry of Urban Development, has been given the task of providing sanitary amenities and household toilets to all 4041 statutory towns with a total population of 377 million.
  • The expected five-year cost is approximately Rs 62,009 crore, of which Rs 14,623 crore would come from the centre.
  • The Mission aims to provide 2.5 lakh community chairs and 2.6 lakh public restroom seats, covering 1.04 crore families.
  • Additionally, it suggests building solid waste disposal facilities in each community.

At the epicenter of this program are six components:

  1. Single household toilets
  2. Public restrooms
  3. Community toilets
  4. Capacity Building
  5. Municipal Solid Waste Disposal Management
  6. Information and Education Communication (IEC) and Public Awareness
  • In addition to eliminating manual scavenging, the Urban Clean India mission aims to improve the management of solid waste, convert unsanitary toilets to flush restrooms, and eliminate open defecation.
  • The goal of the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan is to influence people's attitudes about appropriate sanitation practices by enlightening them about the negative impacts of open defecation, the ecological risks posed by debris that is left lying around, and other related topics.
  • Urban local governments are being strengthened to design, execute, and run systems that foster an enabling environment for the private industry's engagement, including operational expenditure and capital, to accomplish these goals.

Swachh Bharat Mission 2.0 (SBM): Urban

The Swachh Bharat Mission 2.0 received Rs 1,41,678 crores from the government in the Union Budget 2021. The parts of SBM-Urban 2.0 are as follows:

  1. Treatment of wastewater, including fecal sludge management, in all ULBs with fewer than 1 lakh residents is a new component.
  2. Sustainable and ecological sanitation (construction of toilets)
  3. Solid Waste Management
  4. Building capacity, information, communication, and education

Projected achievements of SBM-Urban 2.0:

  1. All statutory towns receiving ODF+ accreditation.
  2. All statute towns with fewer than 1 lakh residents will receive ODF++ accreditation.
  3. Half of all statutory towns with fewer than 1 lakh residents have received Water+ accreditation.
  4. According to the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs' (MoHUA's) Star Rating Protocol for Garbage Free Communities, all statutory towns must be rated at least 3-star Garbage Free.
  5. Biological repair of all former landfills

Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (Rural)

By October 2, 2019, the Swachh Bharat Gramin rural programme hopes to eliminate open defecation from Village Panchayats.

  • The new focus of this rural sanitation mission, which seeks to construct cluster and community toilets through public-private partnerships, is on removing barriers and tackling crucial issues that have an impact on outcomes.
  • Given the squalor and unclean circumstances in rural schools, the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan initiative specializes in restrooms in buildings equipped with fundamental sanitation features.
  • The goal of the Clean India mission is to build Anganwadi toilets and manage liquid and solid waste in all Village Panchayats.

Cities’ Ranking:

As a part of the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan, which was started in 2014, cities and towns all over India are given the designation of "Swachh Cities" based on their sanitation and cleanliness drive.

  • India's cleanest city is Indore in Madhya Pradesh, and its worst is Gonda in Uttar Pradesh. Of the ten cleanest cities, two each come from Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, and Madhya Pradesh, while one each comes from Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Delhi, and Maharashtra.
  • Five of the ten dirtiest cities are located in Uttar Pradesh, with two each in Bihar and Punjab and one in Maharashtra.
  • Out of 500 cities, 118 were discovered to be defecation-free (ODF)
  • 100% door-to-door garbage pickup is available in 297 cities.
  • 37 million people showing interest in Swachh Surveksan.
  • In 404 cities, 75% of the residential areas were deemed to be significantly clean.
  • A maximum of 12 cities from Gujarat are among the top 50 cleanest, accompanied by 11 from Madhya Pradesh and 8 from Andhra Pradesh. These results have been tabulated below;





Madhya Pradesh


Andhra Pradesh




Tamil Nadu




Note: The 2021 ranks are yet to be out. It will be made available after Swachh Survekshan 2021 is finished (1st February – 15th February 2021.)

Swachh Bharat Abhiyan UPSC Facts

Some key facts for UPSC about the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan have been given below;

  • It has been agreed to launch a special cleanup initiative centered on 100 significant historical, cultural and spiritual sites across the nation as part of the Swachh Bharat Mission.
  • The goal of this effort is to transform these 100 locations into "Swachh Tourist Destinations," which will improve the travel experience for both domestic and international travelers.
  • The following table presents the famous locations which were chosen for an intensive clean-up as part of the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan Phase 1:



Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus


Vaishno Devi

Jammu and Kashmir

Taj Mahal

Uttar Pradesh

Golden Temple


Tirupati Temple

Andhra Pradesh

Ajmer Sharif Dargah


Manikarnika Ghat

Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh

Meenakshi Temple

Tamil Nadu

Jagannath Puri


Kamakhya Temple


  • The cleanup programme for the remaining 90 locations incorporates the findings and lessons from Phase 1.

Swachh Bharat Abhiyan Main Points

The following significant elements are highlighted in this article on the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan essay:

  • Having adequate sanitation available at work, in schools, and in other public places is crucial because sanitation must be taken into account as a life cycle issue.
  • This necessitates making the best possible investments at the best possible times and locations. The 150th anniversary of the Mahatma's birth is rapidly approaching, and time is running short.
  • The Swachh Bharat Abhiyan shouldn't turn into another government project that originally makes all the right sounds before quietly disappearing into obscurity.

Swachh Bharat Mission UPSC

The Swachh Bharat Mission UPSC is a relevant topic for the IAS exam. It is one of the government schemes that have been launched in recent years. The various schemes and programs launched by the government are crucial while you are on your journey of cracking the UPSC. They play a significant role in the UPSC Syllabus section on Indian politics and government.

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FAQs on Swachh Bharat Abhiyan Essay

  • The Swachh Bharat Abhiyan is a programme launched by the PMO India, Narendra Modi, to eradicate open defecation and construction of flush toilets along with better management of solid waste. The aim is to change people’s attitudes toward sanitation and hygiene.

  • In many Indian cities, small towns, and rural places, the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan has contributed to the improvement of the roads, streets, and infrastructure. High levels of campaigning have aided in eliminating open defecation and promoting the construction of toilets owned by households and communities.

  • The main objectives of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan include eradicating open defecation, converting unhygienic facilities to pour flush toilets, eliminating manual scavenging, managing solid waste, and changing people's attitudes toward good sanitation practices.

  • The Swachh Bharat Abhiyan was introduced on Gandhi Jayanti, on October 2, 2014, and was declared by Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi on Indian Independence Day. In an address to the public delivered on this day at Rajghat in New Delhi, India, Modi urged all Indians to participate in the Swachh Bharat campaign.

  • The slogan of the Swach Bharat Abhiyan is ‘One step towards cleanliness’ or ‘Ek Kadam Swachhata Ki Aur’. It motivates people to contribute to the mission in their own ways by collectively achieving the national objectives.

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