New Social Movements in India - Types of Social Movements in India

By K Balaji|Updated : November 17th, 2022

There have been many New Social Movements in India in the past few years. Social movements have an agenda to achieve a particular goal. Mainly New Social Movements in India have been launched to change the old social values or structures that have caused damage to individuals from certain groups. Social movements are a joint effort, and in this article, we are going to discuss the New Social Movements in India.

Candidates preparing for the UPSC Exam must have knowledge of New Social Movements in India so that they can answer all the questions asked from this particular topic.

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New Social Movements in India

Since the 20th century, there have been a lot of New Social Movements going on. All these New Social Movements in India are to satisfy different goals and achieve something bigger that would help the environment, different castes, people from different classes, etc.

New Social Movements in India- UPSC Notes

Some examples of New Social Movements in India include caste-based movements, ecological movements, tribal movements, etc. below, and we will be discussing these New Social Movements in India in detail.

Ecological Movements

As the name suggests, ecological movements are one of the New Social Movements in India that aims to deal with matters related to the environment. Chipko movement is one example of an ecological movement. Here there were various interests and ideologies involved. The government wanted to cut down the forest to boost timber sales. However, the villagers were dependent on it As a result, it led to a big conflict.

Tribal Movements

The Tribal movements were all about the representation of Adivasis and their literacy so that they could get better opportunities and earn daily wages. It was located in the ‘tribal belt’ of Northern India. Here many tribes like Hos, Santhals, Santhal Parganas, and Oraons took part.

Caste-Based Movement

This movement was all about recognizing fellow beings as humans. This movement helped the Dalits to raise their voices against untouchability.

Class-Based Movement

This movement was due to the dominance of the upper class over the lower class. One example of a class-based movement is the worker’s movement.

Women’s Movements

This is one of the New Social Movements in India that was associated with representing women in the social and political sphere. There has been inequality between men and women since the beginning of time, and it has led to women’s movements.

Types of Social Movements

There are different types of social movements, namely- redemptive or transformative, reformist, and revolutionary.

  • Redemptive or Transformative- this type of social movement aims to bring about a change in the actions or consciousness of its own individual members.
  • Reformist- a reformist social movement that aims to change the existing political and social arrangements.
  • Revolutionary- the revolutionary social movements attempt to transform social relations. It often happens by capturing state power.

Features of New Social Movements in India

Some of the features of New Social Movements in India are as follows:

  • Here, the organization has a leader who leads the protest and brings the members together.
  • The participants share ideologies and objectives.
  • The New Social Movements in India often rise to bring changes to a public issue.
  • Disorganized protests can’t be named a social movement. The organization may have structure and leadership that shows how the members make decisions and take action.

Social Movements in India UPSC

The social movement in India is an important topic from the UPSC Exam perspective. Candidates preparing for the IAS exam must know about Social Movements in India so that they can answer all the questions asked about this topic. Here we have covered Social Movements in India UPSC Notes that would help the candidates during their preparation. In addition, candidates can also take the help of UPSC Books and study materials for better preparation.

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FAQs on New Social Movements in India

  • The New Social Movements in India are the first and foremost social movements, unlike the older ones that mostly have an economic basis.

  • Some examples of New Social Movements in India are the women’s movements, peace movements, gay rights movements, and ecology movements, among others.

  • There are different types of Social Movements in India, such as redemptive or transformative, reformist, and revolutionary.

  • Some of the most famous Social Movements in India are Swadeshi Movement-1905, Satyagraha, Save Silent Valley Movement – 1973, Chipko Movement – 1973,  Namantar Andolan – 1978, Jungle Bachao Andolan – the 1980s, etc.

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