RAS RPSC Study Notes: Medieval History of Rajasthan

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: September 11th, 2023

The history is not a chronological arrangement of events & incidents only, it is an overall development in the society, its culture and changing socio-economic conditions. The history of human settlement in Rajasthan is almost as old as any other part of India starting from Paleolithic period. A survey of the Banas and its tributaries the Gambhiri, the Viraj, and Wagan has provided evidences that man lived along the banks of these rivers at least 100,000 years ago. In Rajasthan places like Didwana, are among the major centres of Paleolithic period. Excavations at Kalibanga in northern Rajasthan revealed the zenith of Harappan times on the banks of a river, Saraswati. The present day districts of Jhunjhunu and Sikar, along with other areas of Jaipur district bordering south Haryana, formed the part of Vedic state of Brahmavarta. After that contribution in Medieval period was more than any other part of India. The land of heroes and fighters showed its power in medieval period. Rajputana, Pratiharas were main rulers here. In Modern History, Rajasthan was one of the major battle ground against British Regime. Rajasthan was mainly divided in many princely states, though their rulers didn’t join forces with freedom fighters but all subjects of these princely states were major contributors in struggle.

Medieval History Of Rajasthan (700 A.D. To 1700 A.D.)

Gurjar-Pratihar Of Bhinmal

  1. Raja Nagbhatta I
  • Founder of Bhinmal branch of Pratihar.
  • Made triple alliance with Bappa Rawal and Jaisimha to defeat Arabs.
  1. Raja Watsaraj
  • First Pratihar king to occupy Kannauj.
  • He defeated Dharmapala of Gaud Dynasty and defeated by Dhruva of Rashtrakuta dynasty.
  1. Raja Nagbhatta II
  • Occupied Kannauj.
  • Defeated Dharmapala in the battle of Mudgagiri.
  • Defeated by Govinda of Rashtrakuta.
  1. Raja Mihir Bhoj
  • Defeated Devpala of Bengal.
  • Arab traveller Suleiman visited his court in 851 A.D.
  1. Raja Yashpal
  • Last ruler of this dynasty.
  • His rule came to an end due to emerging of Gazni power.

Guhil Dynasty Of Mewar

  1. Guhil
  • In 566 A.D. Guhil established this dynasty.
  • He established independent city Nagda (Udaipur).
  1. Bappa Rawal
  • Name: – Kaalbhoj
  • In 734, he defeated Maan Mori and took Chittorgarh under his control and made Nagada his capital.
  • At first, started gold coin in Rajasthan.
  • He built Eklingji Temple in Udaipur.
  1. Allat (943 A.D. to 953 A.D.)
  • Name: – Alu Rawal
  • Built Varah Temple of Ahar.
  • Married Hun Princess Hariyadevi.
  • Established bureaucracy in Mewar.
  1. Mathan Singh (1191-1211 A.D.)
  • Fought in the battle of Panipat with Prithviraj Chauhan III.
  1. Jaitra Singh (1213-1253 A.D.)
  • Fought battle of Bhutala and defeated the army of Iltutmish.
  • He made Chittor his new capital.
  • His reign is called Golden Age of Medieval Mewar.
  1. Ratan Singh (1302-1303 A.D.)
  • AllauddinKhilji defeated him and he was killed.
  • After his death, his wife Padmavati committed Jauhar.
  • This was biggest Saka of Chittor and first Saka of Rajasthan.
  • Gora and Badal, two commanders showed courage during the battle.
  • In 1540 A.D. Malik Mohammed Jayasi wrote Padmavat in which he mentioned the beauty of Queen Padmavati.

Sisodiya Dynasty Of Mewar

  1. Rana Hammir (1326-1364)
  • Fought Battle of Sugoli with Mohammad Bin Tughlaq.
  • Built the Annapurna Mata Temple of Chittorgarh Fort.
  1. Khetri Singh (1364-82)
  • He captured Zafar Khan, Sultan of Gujarat.
  • Son of Hammir
  1. Rana Lakha (1382-1421)
  • He married Hansa Bai, princess of Marwar.
  • His son Rana Choonda took the oath that not to come on the throne. Thus he is also called Bhishmapitamah of Mewar.
  1. Rana Mokul Singh (1421-33)
  • He reconstructed Samidheshwar Temple in Chittoor.
  • In 1433, he was murdered in Zilwada.
  1. Rana Kumha (1433-68)
  • Defeated Mahmud Khilji, Sultan of Malwa, in battle of Sarangpur (Mandalgarh).
  • He erected Vijay Stambh (sign of Rajasthan police) after this victory which is 37 meters tall and 10 meter in width having 9 floors.
  • It is compared with Qutub Minar.
  • Rana Kumbha defeated the joint army of Mahmud Khilji and Qutubuddin of Gujarat in 1456.
  • Important fort built by Kumbha- (1) Kumbhalgarh (2) Achalgarh (3) Basantgarh
  • Important books written by Kumbha- (1) Rasik Priya (2) Sudha Prabhandh (3) Sangeet Raj (5 part) (6) Sangeet Sudha (7) Kamaraj Ratisaar
  • He gave patronage to many scholars in his court. Important are- (a) Mandan (b) Kanh Vyas (c) Ramabai (d) Muni Sundar Suri etc.
  • He was a musician as well.
  • He was killed by his son Ooda Singh or Udai Singh.
  1. Rana Udai Singh (1468-73)
  • He killed his father Rana Kumbha and came to the throne.
  • Ramuel, his brother, defeated him and ascended the throne.
  1. Rana Raimal (1473-1508)
  • He constructed Adhbut Shiva Temple in Chittor Fort.
  1. Rana Sanga (1508-1528)
  • In 1517 and 1519, he fought the battle of Khatoli and Bari respectively with Ibrahim Lodhi and defeated him in both the battles.
  • In 1519, he defeated MehmudKhilji in the battle of Gagron.
  • In 1527, he was defeated in the battle of Khanwa by Babur.
  • The important king who took part in the battle of Khanwa (Maldev- Marwar, Medini Rai- Chanderi, Mahmood Lodhi (small brother of Ibrahim lodhi)
  • He died at Kalpi (M.P.)
  1. Maharana Udai Singh (1537-1572)
  • Saved by Panna Dhai in the childhood
  • In 1557, fought the battle of Harmada with Haji Khan Pathan who was governor of Ajmer.
  • In 1559, he founded Udaipur and constructed Udai Sagar Lake.
  • In 1568 Akbar attacked and Jaimal and Fatta was killed
  1. Maharana Pratap (1572-1597)
  • In 1576, He fought the battle of Haldighati with Akbar and was defeated by Akbar. Akbar deputed Man Singh against Maharana Pratap.
    Thermopylae of Rajasthan – James Tod
  • Kumbhalgarh war (1577,1578, 1579) between (Sahbaz v/s Pratap)
  • His horse’s name was Chetak who was injured in this battle and later died. Chetak’s cremation is in Balicha Village.
  • In 1582, he fought Battle of Diver.
  • In 1597. He died in Chawand.
  1. Amar Singh (1597-1620)
  2. Karan Singh (1620-1628)
  • He started construction of Jagmandir Palace of Udaipur.
  1. Jagjit Singh I (1628-52)
  • He finished the construction of Jagmandir Palace of Udaipur.
  • He constructed Jagdish Temple of Udaipur.
  1. Raj Singh (1652-80)
  • He protested against Jajiya Tax by Aurangzeb
  • Supported Aurangzeb in the fight of Successor
  1. Jai Singh (1680-98)
  • He built Jaisamand Lake.
  1. Amarsingh II (1698-1710)

Rathod Dynasty Of Marwar

  1. Rao Siyaji
  • He founded this dynasty.
  • In 1273, he died protecting cows in Bithu village.
  1. Rao Dhuhad
  2. Rao Chunda
  • The real founder of Rathod dynasty in Mewar.
  • He was killed in a battle with Salim Shah of Multan.
  1. Rao Jodha (1438-89)
  • He established city Jodhpur.
  • He constructed Mehrgarh Fort.
  • His 5th son Bika established Bikaner.
  1. Rao Satal (1489-1492)
  2. Rao Suja (1492-1515)
  3. Rao Bairam Singh (1515-1515)
  4. Rao Ganga (1515-1532)
  5. Rao Maldeo (1532-1562)
  • He killed his father and ascended the throne.
  • In 1541, he defeated Jaitasi of Bikaner.
  • In 1543, he was defeated by Sher Shah Suri in Battle of Sumail.
  1. Rao Chandra Sen (1562-1565)
  • He was defeated by the Mughal but still denied to form an alliance with them.
  • He is called Pratap of Marwar.
  1. Raja Udai Singh (1583-1595)
  • He established a marital relation with Mughals.
  • His daughter Mani Bai was married to Jahangir.
  1. Sawai Raja Suraj-Mal (1595-1619)
  2. Maharaja Gaj Singh (1619-1638)
  3. Maharaja Jaswant Singh (1638-1678)
  • He wrote BhasaBhusan, Anand Vilas, Prabodh Chandrodaya and AparokshaSidhanta Saar.
  1. Raja Rai Singh (1659-1659)
  2. Maharaja Ajit Singh (1679-1724)

Rathod Of Bikaner

  1. Rao Bika (1465-1504)
  • In 1465, he established Rathod dynasty in Bikaner region.
  • In 1488, established Bikaner.
  1. Rao Naroji (1504-05)
  2. Rao Lunkaran (1505-1526)
  3. Rao Jait Singh (1526-1542)
  4. Rao Kalyan Singh (1542-1571)
  5. Raja Raj Singh I (1571-1611)
  • Akbar gave 51 Pargana to him.
  • He constructed Junagadh Fort in Bikaner.
  • He wrote ‘Rai Singh Mahotsav’.
  1. Maharaja Rao Anup Singh (1669-1698)
  • He wrote ‘Anup Vivek’, ‘Kaam Prabodh’,’ ShraddhPrayog Chintamani’, ‘Anupodaya.’
  1. Maharaja Rao Sarup Singh (1698-1700)
  2. Maharaja Sir Rao Sadul Singh (1943-1950)
  • He was the last ruler of Bikaner and merged in present Rajasthan state and signed the instrument of accession to the dominion of India.

Kachhwaha Of Amber

  1. Prithviraj
  • He was feudal of Rana Sanga, therefore, he fought Battle with Babur in the Battle of Khanwa.
  1. Bharmal
  • The accepted sovereignty of Akbar.
  • The first king of Rajasthan to accept sovereignty and establish a marital relation with Mughal.
  1. Bhagwantdas
  • Suppress Mirza revolt in Sarnal Battle. Thus he was given Nagada and Parcham by Akbar as the award.
  • His daughter was married to Jahangir.
  1. Maan Singh
  • He was made Subedar of Kabul, Bihar and Bengal.
  • He established Maanpur city in Bihar.
  • He established Akbarnagar city in Bengal.
  • He began the construction of forts of Amber.
  • He constructed Radha Govind Temple in Vrindavan.
  1. Mirza Raja Jaisingh
  • Ruled for the maximum period in Jaipur (46 Years).
  • Shah Jahan titled him ‘Mirza Raja’.
  • On 11 June 1665, Treaty of Purandar was signed between Shivaji and Jaisingh.
  • He constructed Jaigarh Fort in Jaipur.
  1. Sawai Jai Singh
  • He saw the reign of seven Mughal Badshah.
  • He changed the name of Amber to Islamabad.
  • His Purohit was ‘PundarikRatnagar’.
  1. Ishwari Singh
  • In 1747, he defeated Madho Singh in the Battle of Rajmahal on the bank of river Banas.
  • In 1748, he was defeated by Madho Singh in the Battle of Bagaru.
  • After this defeat, he committed suicide.

Chauhan Dynasty

  1. Vasudev
  • In 551 A.D. he established Chauhan dynasty.
  • According to Bijoliya inscription, he constructed Sambhar lake.
  1. Ajayraj
  • In 1113 he established Ajmer city.
  • He built Ajmer fort.
  1. Arnoraj
  • He constructed Anasagar Lake in Ajmer.
  • He constructed Varah Temple in Pushkar.
  1. Vigraharaj IV
  • He took away Delhi from Tomar dynasty.
  • He constructed a school later QutubuddinAibak built Dhai Din Ka Jhopda in place of this school.
  1. Prithviraj III
  • In 1182, he defeated Chandel ruler Parmarardidev in Battle of Mahoba.
  • In 1191, he defeated Mohammad Ghori in First Battle of Panipat.
  • In 1192, he was defeated by Mohammad Ghori in Second Battle of Panipat.
  • Moinuddin Chisti came to India during his reign.
  • He constructed Pithauragarh near Delhi.
  • Kaimash and Bhuvanmalla were his two ministers.

Chauhan Of Ranthambore

  • After the death of Prithviraj III, his son Govindraj established his rule in Ranthambore.
  1. Hammir Dev
  • In 1299, he defeated the army of Alauddin Khilji led by Ulugh Khan and Nusrat Khan.
  • Nusrat Khan was killed in this battle.
  • After that Allauddin Khilji raids the Ranthambore fort with his army and defeat them.
  • In 1301, first Siege of Ranthambore took place. This was the first Siege of Rajasthan.
  • He fought 17 battle in his life in which he only lost the last one.

Chauhan of Jalore

  • Founder of this branch of Chauhan was Kirtipal.
  • In inscriptions, Jalore is mentioned as Jabalipur.
  • Allauddin Khilji changed the name of Siwana to Khairabad.

Hada Chauhan Of Bundi

  • In 1241, Deva Hada defeated Jait Meena and occupied Bundi.
  • In 1354, Barsingh constructed Taragarh fort of Bundi.
  • Rao Surjan constructed Ranchhod Temple in Dwarika.
  • Budhhasingh wrote ‘Nehtarang’.
  • Maratha interference took place during the reign of Budhhasingh.

Hada Chauhan Of Kota

  • In 1631, Madho Singh founded this state.
  • Mukund Singh constructed AbaliMeeni Palace in Kota.
  • Bhimsingh constructed Sawariyaji Temple in Baran.

Parmar of Abu

  • Parmar means Killer of the enemies.
  • The founder was Dhumraj but the dynasty begins from Utpalraj.
  • In 1031, Vimalshah constructed a wonderful temple of Adinatha in Abu.
  • Dharavarsha wrote a drama named ‘Parth-Parakrama-Vyayoga’ and established Prahaladanpur (Palanpur).
  • During the reign of Somsingh, son of Dharavarsha, Tejpal constructed Neminath Temple in Delwara village.

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