IUCN Red List of Threatened Species

By Hemant Kumar|Updated : February 23rd, 2020

International Union for Conservation of Nature

  • (IUCN) is an international organization (NGO) working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources.
  • It is involved in data gathering and analysis, research, field projects, advocacy, lobbying and education.
  • The organization is best known for compiling and publishing the IUCN Red List, which assesses the conservation status of species worldwide.
  • Its headquarters are in Gland, Switzerland.

IUCN Red List or Red Data List or Red Book

  • The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, founded in 1964, is the world’s most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of biological species.
  • When discussing the IUCN Red List, the official term “threatened” is a grouping of three categories: Critically Endangered, Endangered, and Vulnerable.


  • The pink pages in this publication include the critically endangered species.
  • As the status of the species changes, new pages are sent to the subscribers.
  • Green pages are used for those species that were formerly endangered but have now recovered to a point where they are no longer threatened.
  • With passing time, the number of pink pages continues to increase.

Species are classified by the IUCN Red List into nine groups


Nine Groups in IUCN Red List


Nine Groups in IUCN Red List

  • Extinct (EX)  No known individuals remaining.
  • Extinct in the wild (EW)  Known only to survive in captivity, or as a naturalized population outside its historic range.
  • Critically endangered (CR)  Extremely high risk of extinction in the wild.
  • reduction in population (greater than 90% over the last 10 years),
  • population size (a number less than 50 mature individuals),
  • quantitative analysis showing the probability of extinction in the wild in at least 50% in their 10 years, and
  • it is therefore considered to be facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild.
  • Endangered (EN) High risk of extinction in the wild.
  • Vulnerable (VU)  High risk of endangerment in the wild.
  • Near threatened (NT)  Likely to become endangered in the near future.
  • Least concern (LC) Lowest risk. Does not qualify for a more at-risk category. Widespread and abundant taxa are included in this category.
  • Data deficient (DD)  Not enough data to assess its risk of extinction.
  • Not evaluated (NE)  Has not yet been evaluated against the criteria.

List of critically endangered species in India as per IUCN Red List 2019

The list of critically endangered species in India from various categories are given below:

Critically Endangered Mammals

  1. Pygmy Hog 
  2. Andaman White-toothed Shrew 
  3. Jenkin’s Andaman Spiny Shrew 
  4. Nicobar White-tailed Shrew 
  5. Kondana Rat 
  6. Large Rock Rat or Elvira Rat 
  7. Namdapha Flying Squirrel 
  8. Malabar Civet 
  9. Sumatran Rhinoceros 
  10. Javan Rhinoceros 

Critically Endangered Birds

  1. Aythya baeri
  2. Forest Owlet
  3. Great Indian Bustard
  4. Bengal Florican
  5. Siberian Crane
  6. Spoon-billed Sandpiper
  7. Sociable Lapwing
  8. Jerdon’s Courser
  9. White-backed Vulture
  10. Red-headed Vulture
  11. White-bellied Heron
  12. Slender-billed Vulture
  13. Indian Vulture
  14. Pink-headed Duck
  15. Himalayan Quail

Critically Endangered Reptiles

  1. Gharial 
  2. Hawksbill Turtle
  3. Leatherback Turtle 
  4. River Terrapin
  5. Bengal Roof Turtle
  6. Sispara day gecko 

Critically Endangered Fishes

  1. Pondicherry Shark 
  2. Ganges Shark 
  3. Knife-tooth Sawfish 
  4. Large-tooth Sawfish 
  5. Narrow-snout Sawfish


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