Historical Background: Governor General of Bengal to Governor General of India
The Bengal Governor-General became the Governor General of British India via the Charter Act of 1833. Additionally, William Bentick served as the first governor-general of India, whereas, Warren Hastings served as the first governor-general of Bengal from 1772 to 1785.
English statesman, Warren Hastings served as the Supreme Council of President of Bengal. He stopped the Dual Government system by executing the Regulating Act of 1773. He and William Jones, founded the Calcutta Madrasa and the Asiatic Society of Bengal in 1781 to advance Islamic studies in 1784. In 1801, Hastings was also chosen to be a member of the Royal Society.
List of Governor General of India
Below is the complete governor-general of India list and the significant reforms they brought about.
Governor General of India
- The First Maratha War in 1775-82, and the second Mysore War in 1780-84.
- He was the first Governor General of Bengal.
- Several wars were observed under his control: the Rohilla War of 1774.
- Presented the Regulating Act of 1773, and the Pitt's India Act of 1784
- The Treaty of Salbai was signed in 1782
- The third Mysore War (1790-92) and the Treaty of Seringapatam (1792) happened under him.
- Introduced the Cornwallis Code (1793).
- One significant move by him was the introduction of the Permanent Settlement of Bengal, 1793.
Sir John Shore
- War of Kharda.
- Guideline of Non-intervention.
- Charter act (1793).
- The fourth Mysore War (1799) and the second Maratha War (1803-05) occurred under his control.
- Introduced influential revenue system called the Subsidiary Alliance System (1798).
Sir George Barlow
- George was the acting Governor General of India till Lord Minto came.
- The Mutiny of Vellore happened under him in 1806.
- He helped to lessen the area of British region owing to his devotion for the economy and retrenchment.
Lord Minto I
- Treaty of Amritsar with Ranjit Singh (1809)
- The third Maratha War (1817-19) happened which ended in the dissolution of the Maratha Confederacy.
- He established the Ryotwari System (1820).
- The Anglo-Nepal War (1814-16) was fought and culminated with the Treaty of Sagauli in 1816.
- First Burmese Battle (1824-1826)
Lord William Bentinck
- Upon the activity of Raja Rammohan Roy, he nullified the Sati System in 1829.
- He brought important social changes and reforms to India.
- Established Charter Act (1833).
Lord Charles Metcalfe
- He was known as the 'Iberator of the Indian press as he removed all limitations on an open press.
- First Afghan War (1838-42)
Lord Hardinge I
- He took forward Bentick's social reforms and annulled female infanticide.
- The first Anglo-Sikh War (1845-46) was fought that topped with the Treaty of Lahore (1846).
- The annexation of Lower Burma (1852).
- He raised the Doctrine of Lapse.
- The second Anglo-Sikh War (1848-49) was fought.
- Wood's Despatch 1854.
- He laid down the first railway line joining Thane and Bombay in 1853.
- He also founded the PWD.
- Revolt of 1857.
- Dissolution of East India Company and transfer of control to the Crown by the Government of India Act, 1858.
- Establishment of three universities in 1857 at Madras, Calcutta, and Bombay.
- Indian Councils Act of 1861.
Lord John Lawrence
- Building of the High Courts at Bombay, Calcutta, and Madras (1865).
- Bhutan War (1865).
- The Arms Act (1878).
- The Second Afghan War (1878-80).
- The Vernacular Press Act (1878).
- Queen Victoria took the crown of 'Kaiser-i-Hind' or Queen Empress of India.
- The first Factory Act (1881)
- Government decisiveness on regional self-government (1882).
- The Ilbert Bill controversy (1883-84).
- Repeal of the Vernacular Press Act (1882).
- Hunter Commission on education (1882).
- The Third Burmese War (1885-86).
- Foundation of the Indian National Congress (1885).
- Setting up of Durand Commission (1893).
- Indian Councils Act (1892).
- Factory Act (1891).
- Indian Universities Act (1904).
- Partition of Bengal (1905).
- Selection of Police Commission (1902).
- Selection of Universities Commission (1902).
Lord Minto II
- Surat Split of Congress (1907).
- Building of Muslim League (1906).
- Swadeshi Movements. (1905-11).
- Morley-Minto Reforms(1909).
Lord Hardinge II
- Shift of capital from Calcutta to Delhi (1911).
- Annulment of Division of Bengal (1911)
- Establishment of the Hindu Mahasabha (1915)
- Montagu's August Declaration (1917)
- Government of India Act (1919)
- The Rowlatt Act (1919)
- Lucknow pact (1916)
- Champaran Satyagraha (1917)
- Jallianwalla Bagh massacre (1919)
- Launch of Non-Cooperation and Khilafat Movements.
- Setting up of Swaraj Party (1922)
- Kakori train robbery (1925)
- Chauri Chaura incident (1922)
- Withdrawal of Non-Cooperation Movement (1922)
- Harcourt Butler Indian States Commission (1927)
- Deepavali Declaration (1929)
- Dandi March and the Civil Disobedience Movement (1930)
- Nehru Report (1928)
- Lahore session of the Congress (Purna Swaraj Resolution) 1929
- First Round Table Conference (1930)
- Simon Commission to India (1927)
- Gandhi-Irwin Pact (1931).
- Government of India Act of 1935.
- Communal Award (1932)
- Second and Third Round Table Conference (1932).
- Poona Pact (1932).
- Tripuri Crisis and formation of Forward Bloc (1939)
- Lahore Resolution of the Muslim League (demand for a separate state for Muslims) 1940
- Resignation of the Congress ministries after the outbreak of the Second World War (1939)
- 'August Offer' (1940)
- Formation of the Indian National Army (1941)
- Cripps Mission (1942)
- Quit India Movement (1942)
- Direct Action Day (1946)
- Notification of end of British control in India by Clement Attlee (1947)
- C. Rajagopalachari's CR Formula (1944)
- Wavell Plan and the Simla Conference (1942)
- Cabinet Mission (1946).
- Redcliff commission (1947)
- June Third Plan (1947)
- India's Independence (15 August 1947)
- Last Governor General of India, before the office, was permanently canceled in 1950.
Difference between the Viceroy and Governor General of India
Governor of Bengal was the position that came before the Governor General and Viceroy of India. Bengal was governed by the East India Company when it arrived in India through the role of Governor of Bengal. Robert Clive served as Bengal's first governor.
Following the Regulating Act of 1773, the governor of Bengal, who had previously served as governor of Madras and Bombay, became the governor-general of Bengal.
- Lord Warren Hastings served as Bengal's first governor-general.
- The Regulating Act of 1833 changed the position of Governor General of Bengal to Governor General of India.
- Under the Government of India Act of 1858, this position is further transformed into Viceroy of India.
Now let's examine the minute variations between these two positions.
Governor General of India
Viceroy of India
The post is created by
The Regulating Act of 1833, which changed the title of the position from Governor-General of Bengal to Governor General of India, and formed the position. East India Company's court of directors appointed the Governor General of India.
Following the Revolt of 1857, the Government of India established the office in 1858. The Viceroy of India, who served as the British crown's envoy, replaced the position of Governor General of India.
First-person to hold the office
Last person to hold the office
C. Rajgopalachari (also first Indian governor general of India)
Lord Louis Mountbatten
Reporting officer above them
Court of Directors of East India Company