Difference Between Intelligence Agency and Investigation Agency

By K Balaji|Updated : November 28th, 2022

The main difference between Intelligence Agency and Investigation Agency is that Intelligence Agency does not have the power to arrest, whereas the Investigation Agency has the power to arrest. The primary responsibility of the country's government is to protect the nation. Every country invests significantly in developing intelligence agencies that improve the country's security system.

Difference Between Intelligence Agency and Investigation Agency PDF

The CIA of the United States, the KGB of Russia, the ISI of Pakistan, and the IB, NIA, and RAW of India are well-known agencies responsible for the country's security. This article will explore the Difference Between Intelligence Agency and Investigation Agency based on various factors.

Difference Between Intelligence Agency and Investigation Agency

The key difference between Intelligence Agency and Investigation Agency is that the mandate to investigate offences is not given to IB but to Investigation Agency. Both agencies play a big role in safeguarding the nation. The following table focuses on the comparison between the two agencies.

Intelligence Agency and Investigation Agency Comparison

 Intelligence Agency vs Investigation Agency

Type of Agency

Intelligence Agency

Investigation Agency

Agencies

Intelligence Bureau (IB)

Research and Analysis Wing (RAW)

Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI)

National Investigation Agency (NIA)

Role

Gather intelligence

Research and analysis of intel

Counter-intelligence

Terrorist infiltration

VIP security

Carry out arrests and interrogations

Can investigate any occurrence that is classified as a crime under Indian Law

Power to Arrest

Cannot arrest or interrogate

Can carry out arrests

Incidents

Provide intel for other agencies

Keep an eye on suspicious activities and people

It obtains intelligence from humans, electronic devices, and covert informers.

Government corruption

Financial frauds

Murders or homicides

Terrorism (NIA solely works on anti-terrorism-related probes)

Ways of working

Intelligence agencies use overt and covert means to work on operations.

Do not work covertly

Workforce

Mostly classified

Not classified

Intelligence and Investigation Agencies of India

Intelligence and investigation agencies both are important for a nation. Nations develop intelligence and investigation agencies to protect themselves from internal and external threats.

There is a stark Difference Between Intelligence Agency and Investigation Agency. Intelligence agencies collect intel or information while the investigation agencies take action on the information.

Intelligence Agency

The Intelligence Bureau can be traced back to British rule in India. After the first war of independence in 1857, the intelligence group was formed to keep an eye on developments of revolt among the soldiers. It was established in 1887 as the Central Special Branch following independence. RAW was established in 1968 as an external research and intelligence agency.

Some of the important intelligence agencies include the Intelligence Bureau (IB), National Intelligence Grid (NATGRID), and Research and Analysis Wing (RAW).

Investigation Agency

The Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) and the National Investigation Agency (NIA) are the investigation agencies. Investigation agencies like the CBI are responsible for investigating crimes and arresting people involved in unlawful activities. 

The different branches of CBI include the Anti-Corruption Division, Special Crimes Division, Directorate of Prosecution, Economic Offences Division, Policy and Coordination Division, Administration Division, and Central Forensic Science Laboratory.

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FAQs on Difference Between Intelligence Agency and Investigation Agency

  • The Difference Between Intelligence Agency and Investigation Agency functions is that Intelligence agencies collect information or intel through covert operations while investigation agencies make arrests and interrogate based on the intel.

  • The Intelligence Agency and Investigation Agency are placed in a country to protect the country from the increasing internal and external threats harmful to the nation. Both are an essential part of the country’s security forces and help maintain the peaceful functioning of the county

  • Yes, there is a Difference Between Intelligence Agency and Investigation Agency working methods. The intelligence agencies work covertly to get information. They cannot make arrests or interrogations. On the other hand, investigation agencies can arrest and interrogate the accused

  • There exist various differences between Intelligence Agency and Investigation Agency. Let us see a few examples: Intelligence agencies include the Intelligence Bureau (IB), Research and Analysis Wing (RAW), and National Intelligence Grid (NATGRID), while investigation agencies include the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) and National Investigation Agency (NIA).

  • The Difference Between Intelligence Agency and Investigation Agency workforce is that the workforce of intelligence agencies is mostly classified with their identities hidden from the general public, while the workforce working for investigation agencies can be found on their official website

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