Red Corridor

By : Neha Dhyani

Updated : May 2, 2022, 11:08

The Red Corridor, also known as the Red Zone, is in the region of eastern, central, and southern India where the Naxalite rebellions and Maoists are the most prevalent. Geographical coverage and the number of violent incidents are steadily declining.

As compared to the 180 affected districts in 2009, the number in 2021 dropped down to 70 with 25 "most affected" districts. The red corridor covers 10 states of remote, forested hills rich in two coal in and around the three junctions of Dandakaranya, Chhattisgarh, Orissa, and Jharkhand, Bihar, and West Bengal.

Major states under Red Corridor were affected by Naxalite movement

The Naxalite Group is primarily composed of armed executives from the Communist Party of India (Maoists). These cover parts of

  • Andhra Pradesh
  • Bihar
  • Chhattisgarh
  • Jharkhand
  • Madhya Pradesh
  • Maharashtra
  • Orissa
  • Telangana
  • West Bengal

Economic Situation of the Red Corridor

The Red Corridor region is one of the poorest areas in the country. Areas such as Jharkhand, Orissa, Chhattisgarh, and Telangana are poor and experiencing severe economic inequality. An important feature of the region is a non-diversified economy based solely on the primary industry. Agriculture, sometimes supplemented by mining and forestry, is the mainstay of the economy and often cannot support rapid population growth.

The region has important natural resources such as minerals, forestry, and potential hydropower capacity. For example, Orissa states that "60% of India's bauxite reserves, 25% of coal, 28% of iron ore, 92% of nickel and 28% of manganese reserves are layered societies with a caste-federal border.

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Social Condition of Red Corridor

Much of this area is a populated area of tribes (or Adivasi), such as Santhal and Gond. Bihar and Jharkhand have people fighting over caste and tribal differences, and these are affected by violence associated with tensions between social groups. Both Chattisgarh and Orissa have a fairly poor tribal population.

What is the Odisha Gap in the Red Corridor?

The Red Corridor is deeply impacted by the Nepal border touching the northernmost tip of Tamil Nadu. However, the coastal and a few central regions of Odisha show the low activity of Naxalite and depict a high literacy and economic diversification.

This may be better than the states that fall under the red corridor but overall the indicators for the non-coastal areas of Orissa are significantly lower, and the literacy rate for the entire region is well below the national average.

The location of the Red Corridor is adjacent to several states and gives Maoists an advantage. Police cooperation is lacking at borders between states and can be easily abused. In addition, Maoists take advantage of differences in state government policies such as capitulation, debate, and policy strategy.

The Red Corridor is a threat to internal security. The movement has professed to defend people's rights, but it is the people of the region who are seriously affected. The government strives to use the resources available in the area to meet the needs of the people living in the area.

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FAQs on Red Corridor

Q.1. What is India's Red Corridor?

This zone, which includes about 11 states, including central, southern, and eastern India, and is most concentrated in Orissa, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, and Jharkhand, is considered the Red Corridor.

Q.2. What is the source of the Red Corridor?

The protest of Maoists has been going on for 51 years. The movement has been endorsed at home and abroad and has survived for a long time. Initially, Naxalite was able to secure weapons from the people of the area. Then they started stealing police guns and other ammunition from the arsenal. This is the source of the Red Corridor.

Q.3. How are the Red Corridor militants trained and supported?

The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) train the militants of the Red Corridor. Nepal also exchanges local fighters and weapons, strategies and training programs, and many other tactical nuclear weapons.

Q.4. How is the government dealing with the situation in the Red Corridor?

Risks associated with the region range from low levels of civil insecurity to violent rebellions such as the Maoist rebellion. Serious situations may include terrorism that requires the intervention of paramilitary organisations. Special procedures such as secret trials and detention are taken for those who threaten the security of the country. This is the government dealing with the situation in the Red Corridor.

Q.5. How do the Maoists and Naxalite factions behave in the Red Corridor?

The Red Corridor is suffering from major internal security risks as it is easy to move and allows safe transportation. Dense forest coverage and poor connectivity provide camouflage to this corridor. The Maoists engage in mobile combat beyond what is known as the Naxalite Belt.