Which is the new Tiger Reserve in India?
A new tiger reserve, presumably the 4th in the area, covering an area of 1,440 sq km, has come up in the northern province of Madhya Pradesh.
- The forest was created by carving out the core areas of two protected areas - Guru Ghasidas National Park and Tamor Pingla Wildlife Sanctuary to create the largest contiguous protected area in Central India.
- Tiger corridors are being saved and conserved under this mega project.
- It will be part of the famous Madhya Pradesh corridor which passes through the national park and the wildlife sanctuary and forms a vital part of the tiger dispersal route.
History of Indian Tiger
Let's take a look at some facts about the Indian Tigers below.
- In the wild, Tigers are currently found in Myanmar, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Sumatra, Vietnam, Nepal, China, Russia, India, Bhutan, and Malaysia.
- The Indian/Bengal tiger is found mainly in Bhutan, India, Nepal, and Bangladesh.
- Habitat: Tigers are found in equatorial and sub-tropical woods, mangrove swamps, evergreen forests, and grasslands.
- The tigers have been reported in temperate forests of the Himalayas as well.
- IUCN status: Endangered
- WPA Status: Tigers are listed under Schedule I of the Wildlife (Protection) Act
- Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES): Appendix I.
The New tiger reserve in India
The project aims to protect the tigers from poaching, traffic, and habitat loss by creating contiguous forest patches. The region is around 100 km from the previously existing tiger reserves, Indravati, Achanakumar, and Udanti-Sitanadi.
- The state government of Madhya Pradesh has been working on creating this new national park since 2011.
- Now that it's finally completed, the decision has been met with much praise from wildlife conservationists and environmentalists who say it will help protect and preserve some of the world's most endangered species, including tigers and leopards.
- Tiger experts consider this new reserve a pioneering effort to save tigers from extinction.
Significance of Tiger Reserves in India
The new tiger reserves in India are a dream come true for conservationists. As a result, there has been an increase in the geographical area covered by the natural habitats of tigers.
- The largest tiger reserve in India is Nagarjunsagar, commonly known as Srisailam, in Andhra Pradesh.
- The Indian government has set up a new tiger reserve in Chhattisgarh to protect this national asset further and boost numbers.
- After all, a tiger reserve is not only about tigers.
- It is about creating an ecosystem that supports flora and fauna.
- This corridor will provide an assured prey base for predators like tigers, leopards, and panthers in the core area.
- It will also facilitate the exchange of gene pools between different populations of wild cats and create territorial linkage between two isolated tiger populations in central India.
- For years, the new reserve's size and quality and the commitment to maintaining it as a protected area give hope that tigers will continue to share our forests.
List of Tiger Reserves in India [53 Tiger Reserves in 2022]
Let's take a look at the Tiger Reserves present in the state of India.
Tiger Reserves in India State Wise
Namdapha National Park
Kamlang Tiger Reserve
Pakke Tiger Reserve
Manas Tiger Reserve
Nameri National Park
Orang Tiger Reserve
Kaziranga National Park
Valmiki National Park
Udanti-Sitanadi Wildlife Sanctuary
Achanakmar Wildlife Sanctuary
Indravati Tiger Reserve
Guru Ghasidas National Park and Tamor Pingla Wildlife Sanctuary
Palamau Tiger Reserve
Nagarahole National Park
Biligiri Ranganatha Temple Tiger reserve
Bhadra Wildlife Sanctuary
Dandeli-Anshi Tiger Reserve
Bandipur Tiger Reserve
Parambikulam Tiger reserve
Periyar Tiger reserve
Bandhavgarh Tiger reserve
Pench Tiger reserve
Sanjay-Dubri Tiger reserve
Kanha Tiger reserve
Panna Tiger reserve
Satpura Tiger reserve
Nagzira Tiger Reserve
Melghat Tiger reserve
Pench Tiger Reserve
Tadoba-Andhari Tiger Reserve
Bor Tiger Reserve
Sahyadri Tiger Reserve
Dampa Tiger Reserve
Satkosia Tiger Reserve
Similipal Tiger Reserve
Ranthambore Tiger Reserve
Sariska Tiger Reserve
Mukandra Hills Tiger Reserve
Mudumalai Tiger Reserve
Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve
Anamalai Tiger Reserve
Srivilliputhur - Megamalai
Kalakad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve
Kawal Tiger Reserve
Amrabad Tiger Reserve
Amangarh Tiger Reserve
Pilibhit Tiger Reserve
Dudhwa Tiger Reserve
Jim Corbett National Park
Rajaji Tiger Reserve
Sunderban National Park
Buxa Tiger Reserve
Critical Facts about Tiger Reserves in India
- As per the Tiger Census Report, 2019, the Tiger population has significantly increased from 2,226 in 2014 to around 2,967 in 2019.
- Madhya Pradesh has the highest number of tigers at 526, followed by Karnataka (524) and Uttarakhand (442).
- Jim Corbett National Park in Uttarakhand has the most Tigers in India, followed by Nagarhole and Bandipur in Karnataka, Bandhavgarh in (Madhya Pradesh) and Kaziranga in Assam.
Tiger Reserves in India 2022 - Additional Schemes
- Project Tiger was launched on the 1st of April 1973 to promote the conservation of Tigers in India.
- It is a 100% centrally sponsored scheme that provides funds to help the 'tiger range States' for in-situ conservation of tigers in the chosen tiger reserves.
- The National Tiger Conservation Authority administers the Project Tiger (NTCA)
- The Project aims to promote an exclusive tiger agenda in the core areas of famous tiger reserves in India, with inclusive people participation.
- Since 2006, the Indian government has been conducting Tiger Census every four years, led by the National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) and the Wildlife Institute of India (WII), with cooperation from various state forest departments and conservation NGOs.
- Monitoring System for Tigers – Intensive Protection and Ecological Status, a software-based monitoring system, was launched across Indian tiger reserves in 2010.
- Its objective is to strengthen patrolling and surveillance of the endangered Bengal tiger.
- CITES, or The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna, has been approved by over 160 nations, making global trade in tiger body parts illegal.
- India has been a signatory of this convention since the year 1975.
St. Petersburg Declaration on Tiger Conservation:
- At the Petersburg Tiger Summit in 2010, leaders of 13 tiger range countries, including India, resolved to take all necessary measures to conserve Tigers globally and embarked on efforts to double their number in the wild.
- The slogan for this initiative was decided as 'TX2'.
- The Pilibhit Tiger Reserve and Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve have won the TX2 award after their Tiger numbers doubled since 2010.
Threats to Tiger Reserves in India
- Poaching is still among the significant challenges for the conservation of Tigers.
- Every part of the tiger has great market value, thus promoting hunting by professional poachers, local hunters, trappers, pirates, and villagers.
- Climate change and global warming increasing global temperatures have forced tigers and other species to shift their belts and migrate towards colder regions.
- Natural disasters such as large-scale forest fires are a great threat.
- Human encroachment of tiger habitats for livestock grazing, infrastructure expansion, and farming is a cause of concern.
- Infrastructural development such as railways and roadways severely threaten Tiger habitats.
|Other Important UPSC Notes|
|Essential Commodities Act 1955||SATAT Initiative|
|Horizontal and Vertical Reservation||CAMPA Act|
|Sanyasi Revolt||Sattriya Dance of Assam|