Sultanate of Delhi Part-1: MPSC Study Notes

By Saroj Singh|Updated : June 13th, 2022

The Delhi Sultanate is a noble example for the glory of Medieval India. Its culture, art and architecture that exist even today are praiseworthy.  The Sultans of Delhi ruled for quite a long period of 320 years during which there were achievements in different fields. Go through this article to read about the Delhi Sultanate.

This article is important for MPSC State Services and MPSC Combined Exams.

Study Notes for UPSC/PCS: Delhi Sultanate Part-1

Dynasties of Delhi Sultanate 


Period of Rule

Prominent rulers

Mamluk or Slave dynasty

1206 – 1290

Qutubuddin Aibek, Iltutmish, Razia Sultan, Ghiyasuddin Balban

Khilji dynasty

1290 – 1320

Alauddin Khilji

Tughlaq dynasty

1321 – 1413

Muhammad Bin Tughlaq, Firoz Shah Tughlaq

Sayyid dynasty

1414 – 1450

Khizr Khan

Lodhi dynasty

1451 – 1526

Ibrahim Lodhi

Slave Dynasty (1206-1290)



Important Facts

1206 - 1210

Qutbuddin Aibak

1)      Most trusted slave of Muhammed of Ghori

2)      Died in 1210 while playing Chaughan (Polo)

3)      He was granted the title Lakh Bakhsh

4)      He constructed the Quwat-ul-Islam mosque in Delhi and Adhai din ka jhonpra at Ajmer

5)      He also started the construction of Qutb Minar in the honour of Sufi saint Khwaja Qutbuddin Bakthiyar Kaki

1210 – 1236


1)      The real consolidator of Turkish conquests

2)      He saved the Delhi Sultanate from the invasion of the Mongol, Chengiz Khan

3)      He introduced the currency system of Tanka and Jittal

4)      He organized Iqta System – land grant to soldiers and nobility

5)      He set up the Chahalgani system – nobility of 40 members

6)      He completed the construction of Qutb Minar

1236 – 1240

Razia Sultana

1)      The first and the only Muslim lady who ever ruled India

2)      Though a popular ruler, she was disliked by the Chahalgani who wanted to put a puppet ruler at the throne

3)      She was defeated and killed by Bandits while in a fight


An era of weak rulers

After the death of Raziya, weak rulers ascended the throne, who were supported by the Nobles. Bahram Shah, Masud shah and Nasiruddin Muhammad were the successors.

1266 – 1287

An era of Balban

1)      A strong and centralized government was established

2)      He acted as a champion of Turkish Nobility

3)      He broke the strength of Chahalgani to restore the powers of the Monarchy

4)      He established Diwan-i-arz, military department towards a strong army

5)      He adopted a policy of blood and iron to restore the law and order problems

6)      He insisted on the ceremony of Sijada and Paibos

7)      He took up the title Zil-i-illahi

1218 - 1227

Changez Khan

1)      The Mongol leader who prided in being called the Scourge of God

2)      They attacked the Khwarizmi empire and sacked the flourishing cities

3)      Delhi Sultanate became the only important Islam state of this period

4)      Illtutmish, in 1221, refused an asylum request of Jallaudin, who was defeated by Changez Khan. Changez Khan did not cross River Indus, which saved the weak sultanate from loot and plunder.

The Khaljis (1290- 1320)



Important Facts

1290 – 1296

Jalaluddin Khalji

1)      He checked the monopoly of Turkish nobility and followed a policy of tolerance

1296 – 1316

Allauddin Khalji

1)      He separated religion from politics and proclaimed, ‘Kingship knows no kinship’

2)      He followed an imperialist and annexation policy. He annexed Gujarat, Ranthambore, Malwa, Mewar etc

Administrative reforms

1)      By series of 4 Ordinances, Allaudin took steps to avoid the problems caused by the nobles

2)      He introduced the Dagh – branding of horse and Chehra – a descriptive roll of soldier’s system.

3)      By setting up markets, Allauddin fixed the cost of all commodities

4)      He constructed the Alai fort and Alai Darwaza – entrance of Qutb Minar

5)      He also built the palace of thousand pillars called Hazar Sutun

6)      Amir Khusrau was the court poet of Allaudin

1316 – 1320

Mubarak Khan



Khusrau Khan

Ghazi Malik deposed Khusrau Khan in a rebellion.


Image source: NCERT+Wiki+Britannica

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