Role of Bihar in Civil Disobedience Movement

By Mayank Yadav|Updated : May 11th, 2021

Bihar played important role in civil disobedience movement. This topic provides an overview of Bihar's role, important personalities and different developments of the period. This is important topic for various state level exams like BPSC Civil Services exam, Amin, AAO, SI and many more. Read it thoroughly. Best of Luck!!

Role of Bihar in Civil Disobedience Movement

The proposal of Civil Disobedience Movement passed in Lahore session of INC in Dec, 1929. In this light, Gandhi put up 11 demands with the government and a deadline was given to approve or disapprove  it till 30 Jan, 1930. Due to the disapproval of the demands Congress working Committee(CWC) decided to start Civil Disobedience Movement in Sabarmati. Gandhi started Dandi March with his 78 supporters and on April 6 1930, he violated the Salt Act and thus gave thrust to Civil Disobedience Movement.

Bihar played an important role in Civil Disobedience Movement. 6th April 1930 was fixed as the date for Salt Satyagraha. Rajendra Prasad reviewed the possible line of Civil Disobedience in a speech at Patna in the month of February. Jawaharlal Nehru toured Saran, Champaran and Muzzaffarpur from 31st March to 3rd April. His visit was a source of great inspiration to the people of Bihar. The city of Patna witnessed one of the most heroic scenes from 16th to 21st April even in the face of  violence on the part of the police.

On 16th April 1930, a Satyagraha was inaugurated at Patna. Volunteers proceeded in procession to Nakhas pind, which had been selected as the spot for the violation of salt laws by manufacturing salt. The police perpetrated merciless atrocities on volunteers in the vanguard. Prof. Abdul Bari was brutally attacked by the police, when he was trying to control the crowd in front of the Patna College.

Acharya Kriplani was also assaulted by the police with the batons. The police even pressed against Rajendra Prasad while he was moving quietly along the road with a few other leaders. But people were not deterred.

In Bhagalpur, a regular camp of volunteers was started where they drilled and practiced lathi play. The government decided to declare this camp as an unlawful assembly and break it up. Rajendra Prasad , Abdul Bari and several other leaders were present along with a large crowd when the camp was being dismantled. In Munger district, breaking of salt law became chronic and hundreds were arrested. Under the able leadership of Krishna Sinha and Nand kumar Sinha, Congress activities increased rapidly in Munger district.

The movement for the non-payment of Chowkidari tax spread throughout Bihar. Government adopyed stringent measures to crush it. For the the non-payment of Chowkidari tax, confiscation of property and goods of all kinds including ploughs, cattle grains, cooking utensils etc become the common feature. On account of the Gandhi-Irwin Pact and Gandhi attending the Second  Round Table Conference in London, there was a slowdown in the non-cooperation movement between 5th March 1931 to 1st January 1932. After the return of Gnadhi from London, Civil Disobedience Movement was resumed from where it was left.

Government took stringent measures to crush this movement. Government passed a large number of Ordinances covering almost every activity of Indian life.

At several places like Motihari, Sheohar, Begusarai, Tarapur( in Munger), etc, police resorted to firing. Even under these extremely trying circumstances, the annual Congress session was held in Delhi on 24th April 1932. In this session put on record its high appreciation of the supreme sacrifice of freedom fighters who laid their lives, notably in the Frontier province and Tarapur (in Munger) in Bihar.

Notwithstanding the arrest of Rajendra Prasad and many other leaders, unrestricted use of weapons, promulgation of stringent ordinances by the government, the movement continued in all its forms such as picketing of foreign cloth and the sale of liquor, non-payment of taxes, and so on till it was suspended by Gandhi in 1934 under circumstances. The national leaders then decided to concrete on constructive activities.  

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