Revolt of 1857
- Introduction of Policy of Doctrine of Lapse
- Nana Sahib was refused pension, as he was the adopted son of Peshwa Baji Rao II.
- Heavy taxation, evictions, discriminatory tariff policy against Indian products and destruction of traditional handicrafts hit peasants, artisans and small zamindars.
- Indian soldiers were paid low salaries; they could not rise above the rank of subedar and were racially insulted.
- They were also grieved because of the refusal of the British to pay Foreign Service allowance (batta) while fighting in remote regions such as Punjab and Sindh.
- British social reforms (widow remarriage, abolition of Sati, education for girls, Christian missionaries).
- The introduction of the Enfield rifle, the cartridge of which was greased with animal fat, provided the spark.
- Inventions like railway and telegraphs spread of Western education also promoted the cause.
On Mar 29, 1857, a soldier named Mangal Pandey attacked and fired at his senior at Barrackpur in Bengal (in 19th and 34th Native infantry).
On May 10, there was a mutiny of sepoys’ at Meerut (3rd native cavalry).
By the mid of June 1857, the revolution was spread in all the parts of North India.
The revolutionaries declared the Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah as their leader and gave the slogan of March to Delhi.
The revolution seems to be successful in the beginning, but later on, it was suppressed by the British due to the following reasons
- Scindia of Gwalior, the Holkar of Indore, the Nizam of Hyderabad, the Raja of Jodhpur, the Nawab of Bhopal, the rulers of Patiala, Sindh and Kashmir and the Rana of Nepal provided active support to the British.
- The military equipment of the rebels was inferior.
- Comparative lack of efficient leadership.
- Poor Coordination
- The modern intelligent Indians also didn’t support the cause.
LEADERS & CENTRES OF THE REVOLT:
Bahadur Shah II, General Bakht Khan
Hakim Ahsanullah (Chief advisor to Bahadur Shah II)
Begum Hazrat Mahal, Birjis Qadir, Ahmadullah (advisor of the ex-Nawab of Awadh)
Nana Sahib, Rao Sahib (nephew of Nana), Tantia Tope, Azimullah Khan (advisor of Nana Sahib)
Kunwar Singh, Amar Singh
Allahabad and Banaras
Maulvi Liyakat Ali
(He declared the Revolt as Jihad against English)
Tufzal Hasan Khan
Abdul Ali Khan
Khan Bahadur Khan
Kandapareshwar Singh, Maniram Dutta
Surendra Shahi, Ujjwal Shahi
Raja Pratap Singh
Jaidayal Singh and Hardayal Singh
Sevi Singh, Kadam Singh
Major Impacts and Formation of INC:
- The revolt was mainly feudal in character carrying with it some nationalist.
- The control of the Indian administration was passed on to the British crown by the Govt, of India Act, 1858. The army was carefully reorganized to prevent the recurrence of such an event.
- Allan Octavian Hume, a retired civil servant in the British Government took the initiative to form an all-India organisation.
- Thus, the Indian National Congress was founded and its first session was held at Bombay in 1885.
- After that, various sessions were held all over India to educate about the national Government or Congress.
Important Session of INC:
Badruddin Tyyabji (first Muslim President)
George Yule (first English President)
Sir William Wedderburn
Sir Feroze S.Mehta
S. N. Banerjee
G. K. Gokhale
M. M. Malviya
A. C. Majumdar (Reunion of the Congress)
Annie Besant (first woman President)
Lala Lajpat Rai
C. R. Das
Abdul Kalam Azad (youngest President)
M. K. Gandhi
Sarojini Naidu (first Indian woman President)
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