Indian History: Revolt of 1857 and INC

By Asha Gupta|Updated : November 16th, 2021

Complete coverage of syllabus is a very important aspect for any competitive examination but before that important subject and their concept must be covered thoroughly. In this article, we are going to discuss the fundamental of Indian History: The revolt of 1857 and INC.

Revolt of 1857

Major Causes:

  • Introduction of Policy of Doctrine of Lapse
  • Nana Sahib was refused pension, as he was the adopted son of Peshwa Baji Rao II.
  • Heavy taxation, evictions, discriminatory tariff policy against Indian products and destruction of traditional handicrafts hit peasants, artisans and small zamindars.
  • Indian soldiers were paid low salaries; they could not rise above the rank of subedar and were racially insulted.
  • They were also grieved because of the refusal of the British to pay Foreign Service allowance (batta) while fighting in remote regions such as Punjab and Sindh.
  • British social reforms (widow remarriage, abolition of Sati, education for girls, Christian missionaries).
  • The introduction of the Enfield rifle, the cartridge of which was greased with animal fat, provided the spark.
  • Inventions like railway and telegraphs spread of Western education also promoted the cause.

Outbreak:

On Mar 29, 1857, a soldier named Mangal Pandey attacked and fired at his senior at Barrackpur in Bengal (in 19th and 34th Native infantry).

On May 10, there was a mutiny of sepoys’ at Meerut (3rd native cavalry).

By the mid of June 1857, the revolution was spread in all the parts of North India.

The revolutionaries declared the Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah as their leader and gave the slogan of March to Delhi.

The revolution seems to be successful in the beginning, but later on, it was suppressed by the British due to the following reasons

  • Scindia of Gwalior, the Holkar of Indore, the Nizam of Hyderabad, the Raja of Jodhpur, the Nawab of Bhopal, the rulers of Patiala, Sindh and Kashmir and the Rana of Nepal provided active support to the British.
  • The military equipment of the rebels was inferior.
  • Comparative lack of efficient leadership.
  • Poor Coordination
  • The modern intelligent Indians also didn’t support the cause.

LEADERS & CENTRES OF THE REVOLT:

Place

Leader

Barrackpore

Mangal Pandey

Delhi

Bahadur Shah II, General Bakht Khan

Delhi

Hakim Ahsanullah (Chief advisor to Bahadur Shah II)

Lucknow

Begum Hazrat Mahal, Birjis Qadir, Ahmadullah (advisor of the ex-Nawab of Awadh)

Kanpur

Nana Sahib, Rao Sahib (nephew of Nana), Tantia Tope, Azimullah Khan (advisor of Nana Sahib)

Jhansi

Rani Laxmibai

Bihar (Jagdishpur)

Kunwar Singh, Amar Singh

Allahabad and Banaras

Maulvi Liyakat Ali

Faizabad

Maulvi Ahmadullah

(He declared the Revolt as Jihad against English)

Farrukhabad

Tufzal Hasan Khan

Bijnaur

Mohammad Khan

Muradabad

Abdul Ali Khan

Bareilly

Khan Bahadur Khan

Mandsaur

Firoz Shah

Gwalior/Kanpur

Tantia Tope

Assam

Kandapareshwar Singh, Maniram Dutta

Orissa

Surendra Shahi, Ujjwal Shahi

Kullu

Raja Pratap Singh

Rajasthan

Jaidayal Singh and Hardayal Singh

Gorakhpur

Gajadhar Singh

Mathura

Sevi Singh, Kadam Singh

Major Impacts and Formation of INC: 

  • The revolt was mainly feudal in character carrying with it some nationalist.
  • The control of the Indian administration was passed on to the British crown by the Govt, of India Act, 1858. The army was carefully reorganized to prevent the recurrence of such an event.
  • Allan Octavian Hume, a retired civil servant in the British Government took the initiative to form an all-India organisation.
  • Thus, the Indian National Congress was founded and its first session was held at Bombay in 1885.
  • After that, various sessions were held all over India to educate about the national Government or Congress.

Important Session of INC:

Year

Venue

President

1885

Bombay

W.C.Bannerji

1886

Calcutta

Dadabhai Naoroji

1893

Lahore

"

1906

Calcutta

"

1887

Madras

Badruddin Tyyabji (first Muslim President)

1888

Allahabad

George Yule (first English President)

1889

Bombay

Sir William Wedderburn

1890

Calcutta

Sir Feroze S.Mehta

1895, 1902

Poona, Ahmedabad

S. N. Banerjee

1905

Banaras

G. K. Gokhale

1907, 1908

Surat, Madras

Rasbehari Ghosh

1909

Lahore

M. M. Malviya

1916

Lucknow

A. C. Majumdar (Reunion of the Congress)

1917

Calcutta

Annie Besant (first woman President)

1919

Amritsar

Motilal Nehru

1920

Calcutta (sp.session)

Lala Lajpat Rai

1921,1922

Ahmedabad, Gaya

C. R. Das

1923

Delhi (sp.session)

Abdul Kalam Azad (youngest President)

1924

Belgaon

M. K. Gandhi

1925

Kanpur

Sarojini Naidu (first Indian woman President)

 

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Asha GuptaAsha GuptaMember since Mar 2021
Associate Content Developer - AE/JE Non-technical
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