Indian History: Indian Freedom Movements

By Asha Gupta|Updated : November 19th, 2021

Complete coverage of syllabus is a very important aspect for any competitive examination but before that important subject and their concept must be covered thoroughly. In this article, we are going to discuss the fundamental of Indian History:  Indian Freedom Movements  

Indian Freedom Movements

 (AD 1905-10)

  • Swadeshi Movement 1905
  • the foundation of the Muslim League (1906)
  • Surat Session and split in the Congress (1907).
  • Indian Council Act of 1909 also known as Morley-Minto Reforms (1909).
  • It introduced a separate and discriminatory electorate.
  • This was for the first time that, the electorate for returning to the representatives to the councils was decided on the basis of class & community.
  • For the central council, one more category of Muslims was This was for the first time that, the seats in the legislative bodies were reserved on the basis of religion for Muslims. This is called Communal representation.
  • Separate constituencies were marked for the Muslims and only Muslim community members were given the right to elect their representatives.

 (AD 1910-16)

  • Delhi Durbar of 1911
  • Partition of Bengal was cancelled.
  • Capital shifted from Calcutta to Delhi (1911);
  • The Hindu Mahasabha was founded in 1915 by Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya.
  • Jana Gana Mann was sung for the first time at the Calcutta Session of INC in 1911
  • Delhi Conspiracy case 1912
  • First flight of India from Allahabad to Naini in 1911 by the French aviator Henry Bequet.

 (AD 1916-21)

  • Women's University was founded at Poona (1916).
  • Gandhi returned to India (1915) and founded the Sabarmati Ashram (1916) followed by 3 Satyagraha
  • Champaran Satyagraha 1916
  • Satyagraha at      Ahmedabad (1918),
  • Kheda Satyagraha (1918).
  • Rowlatt Act (March 1919)
  • Jallianwala Bagh Massacre (13th April 1919).
  • Khilafat Committee was formed and Khilafat Movement started (1919-20).
  • Non-Cooperation Movement started (1920-22).

(AD 1921-26)

  • Repeal of Rowlatt Act.
  • Chauri-Chaura incident February 1922
  • Withdraw of    Non-Cooperation Movement.
  • RSS, founded in 1925.
  • Formation of Swaraj Party in 1922
  • Moplah Rebellion   (1921)   took place.
  • Hindustan Republican Association was set up in 1924
  • Kokori Train   Robbery   on   9st August, 1925
  • Execution of Ashfaqullah Khan and Ramprasad Bismil.

 (AD 1926-31)

  • Simon Commission visited Indian in 1927.
  • Death of Lala Lajpat Rai 1928
  • Murder of Saunders 1928
  • Bomb in Delhi Assembly 1929
  • Lahore Session of   Congress and Poorna Swaraj Declaration (1929).
  • Rashtrapati Bhawan completed at Delhi 1929
  • Dandi March (12th March, 1930).
  • Civil Disobedience     Movement (1930).
  • First Round Table Conference was held in England in 1930.
  • Gandhi-Irwin Pact 1931
  • Execution of    Bhagat    Singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru 1931.

(AD 1931-36)

  • Second Round Table Conference in London in 1931 and third in 1932.
  • Communal Awards (16th August, 1932) assigned seats to different religious Gandhiji went on an epic fast to protest against this division.
  • All India Kisan Mahasabha 1934.

Salient Features of the Government of India Act 1935 were as follows:

  • Abolition of provincial dyarchy and introduction of dyarchy at the centre.
  • Abolition of Indian Council and introduction of an advisory body in its place.
  • Provision for an AllIndia Federation with British India territories and princely states.
  • Elaborate safeguards & protective instruments for minorities.
  • Supremacy of British Parliament.
  • Increase in size of legislatures, an extension of the franchise, division of subjects into three lists and retention of the communal electorate.
  • Separation of Burma from India.

(AD 1936-44)

  • Subhash Chandra Bose resigned from Congress and formation of a new part Forward Bloc in 1939.
  • The Lahore Resolution (23rd March 1940) of the Muslim League demanding a separate state for the Muslims. (It was at this session that Jinnah propounded his Two-Nation Theory). The outbreak of World War II in 1932.
  • Sir Winston Churchill became PM of India in 1940
  • Subhash Chandra Bose escaped from India and formation of Indian National Army or Azad Hind Fauz in 1943 in Singapore.
  • Cripps Mission in 1942.
  • Quit India Movement (8th August 1942).
  • End of Second World War 1945
  • Cabinet Mission Plan (16th May 1946).
  • The first meeting of the Constituent Assembly was held on 9th December, 1946.
  • Election to the Constituent Assembly were held and an interim government was appointed under Nehru.
  • Final declaration of the end of British rule in India by Clement Atlee 20 Feb 1947.

(AD 1944- March1947)

  • SC Bose died in a plane crash at Formosa 1945
  • Arranged the Shimla Conference on 25th June 1945 with the failure of the Indian National Congress and Muslim League.
  • Atom bombs were thrown on Japan in 1945
  • Formation of Congress Socialist Party 1932
  • JRD Tata became the first Indian to fly the first solo flight of India from Bombay to Karachi 1932
  • Government of India Act (1935) was passed.

 (March to August 1947)

  • Last Viceroy of British India and the first Governor-General of free India.
  • Partition of India decided by the 3rd June Plan or Mountbatten Plan.
  • Indian Independence Act was passed by the British Parliament on 4th July, 1947, by which India became independent on 15th August 1947.
  • Pakistan became Independent on 14 Aug 1947.
  • India became independent on 15 Aug 1947.
  • Retired in June, 1948 and was succeeded by C Rajagopalachari, the first and the last Indian Governor-General of Free India.

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