Indian Geography: General Introduction of Geography

By Asha Gupta|Updated : December 5th, 2021

Complete coverage of syllabus is a very important aspect for any competitive examination but before that important subject and their concept must be covered thoroughly. In this article, we are going to discuss the fundamental of Indian Geography: General Introduction of Geography.

General Introduction of Geography

Position & Extent:

  • India is a country of great geographical extent; it extends from the ice-capped ranges of the Himalayas in the north to the shores of the Indian Ocean in the south.
  • The total area of India is 32, 87,263 sq. km which is roughly 0.57% of the total area of the earth and 2.42% of the total land area of the earth.
  • The latitude position of India is 80 4’-370 6’N

    The longitude position of India is 6807’E- 97025’E

  • The location of India on the globe is between 80 4’ N and 370 6’ N latitudes and 680 7’E and 970 25’ E longitudes. However away from the mainland of India, lies the southernmost point of the country the Indira point or the Pygmalion point is located at 60 45’ N latitude.
  • The North-South extend of India is 3214 km which extends from Indira Col in Kashmir to Kanniyakumari in Tamil Nadu. The East-West extend of India is 2933 km which extend from the Rann of Kutch to Arunachal Pradesh.
  • The highest point of India is Mt. K2/ Godwin Austin (POK) which is 8611mts above the Sea level, but if we talk about the highest point of India inside the territory of India it is Kanchenjunga which is 8598mts which lies in the state of Sikkim.
  • The lowest point of India is Kuttanad which lies in the Indian state of Kerala.
  • Gujarat has the longest Coastal boundary in India whereas Goa has the smallest coastal boundary in India.
  • Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh are the states of India which lies completely in the Himalayas. Uttarakhand is the only state of India which lies partly in the Himalayas and partly in the plains.
  • Gujarat and West Bengal are the only states which are having the Coastline as well as the international boundary.
  • Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and Telangana are the only states of India which are neither having the Coastal boundary neither the international boundary.
  • Assam and Uttar Pradesh have a maximum number of boundaries i.e. 9 each
  • Assam has 2 international boundaries and 7 state boundaries whereas Uttar Pradesh has 8 state boundaries and 1 international boundary.
  • Nagpur is the Zero Mile Centre of India Sonbhadra district in Uttar Pradesh is the only district of India that is surrounded by four states from four sides i.e. Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and Bihar.

 The States of India sharing boundary with Neighbouring Countries:

  • India shares a common boundary with 7 neighbouring countries.

    Bangladesh-------------------- 4096 km

    China------------------------- 3917 km

    Pakistan---------------------- 3310 km

    Nepal------------------------- 1752 km

    Myanmar---------------------- 1458 km

    Bhutan------------------------- 587 km

    Afghanistan--------------------- 80 km

Pakistan: Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Rajasthan and Gujarat.

Afghanistan: Jammu and Kashmir China Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh.

Nepal: Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal and Sikkim.

Bhutan: Sikkim, West Bengal, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh.

Myanmar: Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur and Mizoram.

Bangladesh: West Bengal, Meghalaya, Assam, Tripura and Mizoram.


Geological and physiological divisions of India:

  • The Himalayan Mountains
  • The Northern Plains
  • The Peninsular Plateau
  • The Indian Desert
  • The Coastal Plains
  • The Islands



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