Indian Geography : Agriculture, Crops & Forests of India

By Asha Gupta|Updated : December 12th, 2021

Complete coverage of syllabus is a very important aspect for any competitive examination but before that important subject and their concept must be covered thoroughly. In this article, we are going to discuss the fundamental of Indian Geography: Agriculture, Crops & Forests of India

Agriculture, Crops & Forests of India


Agriculture is the primary activity that includes growing crops, fruits, flowers, vegetables and rearing livestock. It is also known as farming. There are lots of agricultural crops in this world which we know as “Agricultural crops”, includes food grains (wheat, Rice, Jowar, Ragi, Bajra, Sorghum etc.). Spices (cardamom, Nutmeg, Mace, Garlic, Turmeric, Ginger, Coriander, Anise etc.). Seeds and Pulse (Sunflower, Castor, sesame, cotton, Lentil, Fennel etc.).

Vegetables (Lemon, Chickpeas, Okra, Pumpkins, Cabbages, Brinjal, Gourds etc.) Fruits (Banana, Tomato, Mango, Sugarcane Citrus fruits etc.) Nuts (Groundnuts, Cashewnuts etc.) and Beverages (Tea, Coffee etc.).

Agriculture majorly depends on the quality & fertility of the soil.

The field capacity of soil: It refers to the water holding capacity of the soil when it is fully wet. It describes as follows:

Field capacity= Hygroscopic water + Capillary water + Chemically combined water – Gravitational water

Agricultural Seasons in India:

On the basis of seasons, the crops in India have been divided into Rabi, Kharif and Zaid crops.

  • Kharif Crops Season: It is a summer or Monsoon crop in India. These crops are usually sown with the first rain during the southwest monsoon season. For example Cotton, Soybean, Sugarcane, Paddy (Rice), Maize, Moong, Groundnut, Red Chilies, Millet, Pearl millet, Pegan Pea etc.

Sowing Season: May to June

Harvesting Season: September. 

  • Rabi crops: It is a winter crop or spring harvest crop in India. It is generally sown in October and harvest in March last in April. For example Potato, Onion, Mustard, Sunflower, Pea, Gram, Sesame seed, wheat, Barley etc.

Sowing Season: October to December

Harvesting Season: February to March.

  • Zaid Crops: These crops are grown only in some parts of India from March to June mainly (also shown throughout the year). For example Muskmelon, Watermelon, Vegetables of Cucurbitaceae family such as Pumpkin, Bitter guard, Ridged guard etc.

Agricultural Regions in India:

Rice-Jute-Tea Region: Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Tripura, Meghalaya, West Bengal, Orissa, northern and eastern Bihar parts of Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh and Tarai region of Uttar Pradesh.

Wheat and Sugarcane Region: Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Western Madhya Pradesh and northeastern Rajasthan.

Cotton Region: Deccan plateau States Maharashtra, Karnataka, South Gujrat.

Maize and Coarse Crops Region: western Rajasthan and northern Gujarat.

Millets and Oilseeds Region: Karnataka plateau, parts of Tamil Nadu, southern Andhra Pradesh and eastern Kerala.

Fruits and Vegetable Region: Kashmir Valley in the west to Assam in the east.

Forest in India:

Reserved Forest:

  • Annekal Reserved Forest
  • Jakanari reserve forest
  • Kukrail Reserve Forest
  • New Amarambalam Reserved Forest
  • Tadoba Andhari Tiger Reserve
  • Vandalur Reserve Forest

Sanctuary & National Parks:

  • Bandipur National Park
  • Bondla Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Cotigao Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Gir National Park
  • Jim Corbett National Park
  • Kanha National Park
  • Keibul Lamjao National Park
  • Mhadei Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Nagarhole National Park
  • Namdapha National Park
  • Netravali Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary

Based on Average Annual Rainfall:

  • Tropical Evergreen Forests
    • Moist Evergreen Forests
    • Semi-Evergreen Forests
    • Dry evergreen
  • Tropical Deciduous Forests (Monsoon Forests)
    • Moist Deciduous Forests
    • Dry Deciduous Forests
  • Thorn Forests
    • Montane Forests
    • Montane Wet Temperate Forests
    • Montane Subtropical Forests
    • Himalayan Forests
    • Himalayan Moist Forests
    • Himalayan Dry Temperate
    • Alpine and Subalpine Forests
  • Littoral/Swamp Forests
    • Mangroves: Sunderbans


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