What is an Adjective?
An adjective is defined as the word which qualifies a Noun or Pronoun.
1.Ram is a good boy.
2. Delhi is a polluted city.
In the above sentences, highlighted words are adjectives as they describe the Noun associated with them.
Classification Of Adjectives:
These are the adjectives which are formed from Proper Nouns.
Canada - Canadian
India - Indian
These are of two types:
Following are some Indefinite Numeral Adjectives:
Many, Some, Enough, a lot of, several, a good many.
Cardinal(one, two, three, etc), Ordinal(first, second, third etc), and multiplicative(single, double etc)
the important point is that they follow a particular order.
ORDINAL, CARDINAL then MULTIPLICATIVE
The first ten double bedrooms.
This is your car.
As the word, your shows the possession of the car so this is an example of Possessive Adjective.
Following are some Possessive Adjectives:
its, your, my, our, his, her, their.
Following are some Distributive Adjectives:
Each, Every, Either, Neither.
Following are some Demonstrative Adjectives:
such, any, any other, this, that, these, those, some.
Following are some Interrogative Adjectives:
what, which, whose etc
Now we will discuss some important Rules which will be helpful for the exams. These are as follows:
The positive degree of adjective/adverb comes in-between ‘as… as’ and ‘so…..as’.
Ex: He is as good as his brother.
He ran as fast as he could.
Adjective + er ….. than indicates the presence of a comparative degree.
The comparative degree comes before than.
Ex: He is better than his brother.
Than may or may not come after a comparative degree.
Ex: Today I am feeling better.
When one is chosen out of two, we use a comparative degree preceded by the and followed by of.
Ex: She is the best of two sisters. (wrong)
She is the better of two sisters. (right)
If one is chosen out of more than two or all superlative degree is used preceded by the and followed by of.
Ex: He is the best of the three / all the players.
When two qualities of a noun or a pronoun are compared with each other, more + positive degree is used instead of a comparative degree.
Ex: He is wiser than intelligent. (wrong)
He is more wise than intelligent. (right)
If one is compared with all the others of the same variety, any other is used to exclude the former.
Ex: Gold is more precious than any metal. (wrong)
Gold is more precious than any other metal. (right)
Adjectives that end in 'ior' are followed by to and not 'than'.
Ex: Superior, inferior, senior, junior, prior, anterior, posterior.
Ex: He is senior to me.
Many adverbs end in -ly, but many do not. Generally, if a word can have -ly added to its adjective form, place it there to form an adverb.
Ex: She thinks quick/quickly.
How does she think? Quickly.
She is a quick/quickly thinker.
Quick is an adjective describing thinker, so no -ly is attached.
She thinks fast/fastly.
Fast answers the question how, so it is an adverb. But fast never has -ly attached to it.
We performed bad/badly.
Badly describes how we performed, so -ly is added.
Adverbs that answer the question how sometimes cause grammatical problems. It can be a challenge to determine if -ly should be attached. Avoid the trap of -ly with linking verbs such as taste, smell, look, feel, which pertain to the senses. Adverbs are often misplaced in such sentences, which require adjectives instead.
Ex: Roses smell sweet/sweetly.
Do the roses actively smell with noses? No; in this case, smell is a linking verb—which requires an adjective to modify roses—so no -ly.
The woman looked angry/angrily to us.
Did the woman look with her eyes, or are we describing her appearance? We are describing her appearance (she appeared angry), so no -ly.
The woman looked angry/angrily at the paint splotches.
Here the woman actively looked (used her eyes), so the -ly is added.
She feels bad/badly about the news.
She is not feeling with fingers, so no -ly.
The word good is an adjective, whose adverb equivalent is well.
Ex: You did a good job.
Good describes the job.
You did the job well.
Well answers how.
You smell good today.
Good describes your fragrance, not how you smell with your nose, so using the adjective is correct.
You smell well for someone with a cold.
You are actively smelling with your nose here, so use the adverb.
The word well can be an adjective, too. When referring to health, we often use well rather than good.
Ex: You do not look well today.
I don't feel well, either.
Adjectives come in three forms, also called degrees. An adjective in its normal or usual form is called a positive degree adjective. There are also the comparative and superlative degrees, which are used for comparison.
A common error in using adjectives and adverbs arises from using the wrong form of comparison. To compare two things, always use a comparative adjective:
Ex: She is the cleverer of the two women (never cleverest)
The word cleverest is what is called the superlative form of clever. Use it only when comparing three or more things:
Ex: She is the cleverest of them all.
Incorrect: Chocolate or vanilla: which do you like best?
Correct: Chocolate or vanilla: which do you like better?
There are also three degrees of adverbs. In formal usage, do not drop the -ly from an adverb when using the comparative form.
Incorrect: She spoke quicker than he did.
Correct: She spoke more quickly than he did.
Incorrect: Talk quieter.
Correct: Talk more quietly.
When this, that, these, and those are followed by a noun, they are adjectives. When they appear without a noun following them, they are pronouns.
Ex: This house is for sale.
This is an adjective.
This is for sale.
This is a pronoun.
Adjectives like interior, exterior, ulterior, major, minor, empty, excellent, circular, extreme, chief, entire, complete, perfect, final, last, unique, universal, round, square, triangular, eternal, everlasting, ideal, supreme are not used in the comparative or superlative degree.
This is more inferior to that. (wrong)
This is inferior to that. (right)
Good deeds are more everlasting. (wrong)
Good deeds are everlasting. (right)
Some Adjectives are used in only positive and superlative degree and not in comparative degree.
If two Adjectives are used for a single noun or pronoun and if both adjectives are connected by a conjunction, both the adjectives must be in same degree.
Ex: Gandhiji was the noblest and wiser of all the leaders. (wrong)
Gandhiji was the noblest and wisest of all the leaders. (right)
If the is used before an adjective, the adjective becomes a plural common noun.
It will hence take a plural verb.
Ex: rich, poor, needy, aged, blind, dead, meek, wicked etc.
Ex: The rich (rich people) usually exploit the poor. (poor people)
Verbs are modified by adverbs.
Ex: He works honestly.
NOTE: But verbs are sensation (seem, look, appear, feel, taste, sound, and smell) is followed by an adjective and not an adverb.
Ex: The soup smells deliciously. (wrong)
The soup smells delicious. (right)
NOTE: Apart from verbs of sensation be, become, turn, get, grow, keep, make and prove are also modified by adjective and not adverbs.
Ex: when we heard the news, he became sad.
Many Nouns are part of hyphenated or compound adjectives. They never come in plural form.
Ex: I delivered two hours lecture. (wrong)
I delivered a two-hour lecture. (right)
If a noun works as an Adjective, it cannot be in plural form.
Ex: Lasers are indispensable tools for delicate eyes surgery. (wrong)
Lasers are indispensable tools for delicate eye surgery. (right)
Some Adjectives are confusing in their meaning. Hence they should be used carefully.
Farther and Further: Farther means at a greater distance and Further means addition.
Later and Latter: Later means at some time subsequent at a given time and Latter means second of the two.
Possessive Case comes after All and Both and not before them.
Ex: My all friends have got selected. (wrong)
All my friends have got selected. (right)
If both positive and comparative degree of an adjective is used in a single sentence, both as….as and than will be used.
Positive degree is used with as…as and so….as and comparative degree is used with than.
Ex: He is as intelligent as if not more than his brother.
If Adjective of size, colour, age etc. come together in a sentence, they should be used in the following order.
Ex: I bought beautiful, tiny, heart-shaped, purple, American, diamond wedding a ring.
NOTE: Remember the order as OSASCOMP.
Again tall, dark and handsome or fair and beautiful are such common examples that have opinion after colour.
Two comparative and superlative degrees never come together.
Ex: He is the most cleverest of all the officers. (wrong)
He is the cleverest of all the officers. (right)
This is more better than that. (wrong)
This is better than that. (right)
If different prepositions are needed with different adjectives, suitable prepositions must be used with each of them.
Ex: He is senior and more experienced than you. (wrong)
He is senior to and more experienced than you. (right)
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