General Reasoning : Analogies & Syllogism Notes

By Deepanshu Rastogi|Updated : June 24th, 2021


Number Analogy:

Typical relationships between the numbers

  • One number is a multiple of others.
  • One number is the square root of the other.
  • One number is the cube or cube root of the other.
  • The two numbers can be consecutive, even, odd or prime numbers.
  • In letter analogy, the relationship is between 2 groups of letters on each side of the sign:
  • In word analogy, there is a certain relationship between the 2 given words on one side of ‘::’ and one word is given on the other side.

Word Analogy:

The analogy is a comparison between one thing and another, typically for the purpose of explanation or clarification.

  • A thing that is comparable to something else in significant respects.
  • A process of arguing from similarity in known respects to similarity in other respects.
  • A process by which new words and inflections are created on the basis of regularities in the form of existing ones.
  • The analogy is a literary technique in which two unrelated objects are compared for their shared qualities.


1. In the following question, select the related word from the given alternatives: Soap: cleaning :: chair : ?

A. Fiber

B. Wood

C. Sitting

D. Both A & B

Ans: C


Soap is used for cleaning something. The chair is used for getting seated. Hence, option C is the correct response.


2. In the following question, select the related number from the given alternatives: 59 : 45 :: 63 : ?

A. 19

B. 28

C. 56

D. 18

Ans: D


59 = 5 × 9 = 45
63 = 6 × 3 = 18
Hence, option D is the correct response.


A syllogism is a form of deductive reasoning consisting of a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion. When one makes a conclusion from a general statement or premise and forms a specific conclusion, it takes the form of deductive reasoning, as the specific conclusion is deducted from the general statement.

Syllogisms can be solved in many different ways, the most frequently used method being Venn diagrams. Venn diagrams show all possible and hypothetically logical relations between a collection of finite and infinite statements. In case of an overlap of the diagrams, it means that an object comes under two or more categories of statements.


1. All papayas are cycles.

2. All cycles are pens.

A. All cycles are papayas.

B. All papayas are pens.

C. All pens are cycles.

D. All pens are papayas.

Ans B


In the above statement, it is given that all papayas are cycles, implying that papayas are a subset of cycles. Hence, the circle representing papayas is enclosed within that representing cycles.

The same holds good for cycles and pens. Thus, from this we can conclude that the collection of pens is the biggest set, implying that all papayas are pens, and all cycles are pens. However, all cycles are not payapas, all pens are not papayas and all pens are not cycles.


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