Environmental Engineering : Waste Water Characteristics

By Aditya Kumar|Updated : September 10th, 2021

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Characteristics of Sewage

Aerobic Decomposition

(i) Nitrogenous organic matter

byjusexamprep 

 Nitrate

(ii) Carbonaceous organic matter

byjusexamprep 

 Carbon dioxide

(iii) Sulphurous organic matter

 byjusexamprep 

 Sulphate

Nitrogen Cycle under Aerobic Decomposition

byjusexamprep

 

Anaerobic Decomposition

(i) Nitrogenous organic matter

 byjusexamprep 

(ii) Carbonaceous organic matter

 byjusexamprep

(iii) Sulphurous organic matter

 byjusexamprep

(iv) Organic acids

 byjusexamprep

Threshold Odour Number (TON)

 byjusexamprep 

 byjusexamprep The volume of the sewage

byjusexamprep The volume of distilled water or odourless water.

 

Total Solids, Suspended Solids and Settleable Solids

(i) byjusexamprep 

 Where,

byjusexamprep Dissolved solids plus colloidal or filterable solids in mg/lit

byjusexamprep Non-filterable solids in mg/lit

byjusexamprep The total amount of solids in mg/lit

byjusexamprep Volatile suspended solids, in (mg/lit.)

byjusexamprep Fixed solids

(ii) byjusexamprep 

byjusexamprep

Total Solids

50% Dissolved

25% Suspended

25% Settlable

Chemical Oxygen Demand

 (i) Biodegradable + non Biodegrable O.M.

 (ii) byjusexamprep added and used is measured.

Theoretical Oxygen Demand

 byjusexamprep 

 byjusexamprep

 Benzene

 byjusexamprep

 Glucose

 

Biochemical Oxygen Demand

· 

byjusexamprep 

 Where,

Biochemical oxygen demand in ppm or mg/lit.

Initial dissolved oxygen in mg/lit.

Final dissolved oxygen in mg/lit.

·               byjusexamprep 

 byjusexamprep

(i) byjusexamprep 

 Where,

k = Rate constant signifying the rate of oxidation of organic matter and it depends upon the nature of organic matter and temperature. Its unit is per day.

byjusexamprep   the equivalent of organic matter present after t days.

(ii) byjusexamprep 

 Where,

 byjusexamprep Deoxygenation constant.

 byjusexamprep Organic matter present at byjusexamprep 

(iii) byjusexamprep 

(iv) byjusexamprep 

 Where,

byjusexamprep The total amount of organic matter oxidized int days i.e. BOD.

(v) byjusexamprep

(vi) byjusexamprep 

 Where,

 byjusexamprep Ultimate B.O.D of byjusexamprep days.

(vii) byjusexamprep 

byjusexamprep

 

 byjusexamprep

 

byjusexamprep

(viii) Laboratory Estimations of byjusexamprep and L values

 (Thomas Method)

 byjusexamprep 

 byjusexamprep

 Where,

 m = Slope of the line

 C = Intercept of the line on the y-axis.

 byjusexamprep 

 

Relative Stability (s)

 byjusexamprep

 Where time in days at 20oC.

 byjusexamprep time in days at 37oC.

 

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