- The load factor (λ)
Saving in material
% saving in material
Plastic Sections Modulus
- Plastic Section Modulus
Shape Factor (∝)
Where Zy is elastic section modulus
Load Factor = Factor of safety x Shape factor
λ = FS × α
Shape factors for different shapes
Reserve Strength (Ψ)
- It is the ratio of the ultimate load Wu to the load at first yield Wy of the structure.
Length of a Plastic hinge (Lp)
- It is the length of the beam over which the moment is greater than the yield moment (My).
(a) For simply supported beam carrying a concentrated load, length of plastic hinge is given by
(for rectangular section)
(for I section)
(b) For simply support beam carrying UDL length of plastic hinge is given by
Where ∝ is shape factor and L is the total length of the beam.
- The length of plastic hinge depends on loading and geometry.
Collapse Load Formulae
- Simply supported beam with the concentrated load at the center
- Simply supported beam with the uniformly distributed load
- Propped cantilever with a concentrated load at the center
- Propped cantilever with a uniformly distributed load
- Fixed beam with a concentrated load at the center
- Fixed beam with eccentric loading
- Fixed beam with the uniformly distributed load
- Fixed beam with hydrostatic loading
- Continuous beam with a uniformly distributed load
The positions of the plastic hinges are one at the support B and one on each side of the central support at a distance of 0.414L from A & C.
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