Electrical Machines : Transformers

By Yash Bansal|Updated : May 17th, 2021

Electrical Machines : Transformers

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                                                                    

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                                   

In this article, you will find the complete study notes on Transformer.

  • A basic transformer consists of two separate windings of insulated wires wound around a common iron core.
  • The power source or supply is hooked to the primary winding, the load to be served is hooked to the secondary winding.
  • Primary windings, connected to the alternating voltage source, and Secondary windings, connected to the load. Iron core used to link the flux in both windings.
  • When the primary winding is energized an electromagnetic field builds up and then collapses in the iron core, this field cuts through the secondary coil winding inducing power to the load hooked to the secondary.
  • This power build up and collapse is called magnetic flux and occurs at a frequency of sixty times a second (60 Hz) in an a.c. circuit.
  • Unlike in rotating machines, there is no energy conversion.
  • Transformers are based on the principle of “mutual-induction.” When current flows through a wire a magnetic field is produced.
  • When a conductor passes through a magnetic field, a current flow will be induced through the wire.
  • The method of transferring electrical energy by a transformer is done indirectly. Electrical energy is first converted into magnetic energy, then reconverted back into electrical energy at a different voltage and ampacity. Magnetism and electricity are closely related.

image001

  • By altering the number of windings on the primary and secondary, we can alter the amount of volts and amps between the source and the load.
  • The current in the secondary coil always changes by the inverse of the ratio by which the voltage changes.
  • If the voltage is raised to n times its original value by the transformer, the current in the secondary coil will be reduced to one- n th the value of the current in the primary coil.
  • The rms value of induced emf can be find as:
    • Primary induced emf E1 = 4.44 f N1 φm volt
    • Secondary induced emf E2 = 4.44 f N2 φm volt.
    • where, N1 = Number of turns in primary winding, N2 = Number of turns in secondary winding, f = Supply frequency in Hz, and φm = Maximum value of the magnetic flux in Wb

Transformer Ratio:

  • The input winding to a transformer is called the primary winding.
  • The output winding is called the secondary winding.
  • Step Down Transformer: If there are more turns of wire on the primary than on the secondary, the output voltage will be lower than the input voltage.
  • Step Up Transformer:  If there are more turns of wire on the secondary than on the primary, the output voltage will be higher than the input voltage.

Turns Ratio = (Number of turns on the Primary) / (Number of turns on the Secondary)

Turns Ratio = (Primary Voltage) / (Secondary Voltage)

Turns Ratio = (Secondary Current) / (Primary Current)

Transformer Rating :

  • Transformers are rated in volt-amperes (VA) or kilovolt-amperes (kVA)
  • When the volt-ampere (or kilovolt-ampere) rating is given, along with the primary voltage, then the primary full-load current can be determined as:

Full Load Current = VA rating / Voltage 

Full Load Current = (kVA rating * 1000) / Voltage 

Turns Ratio = (Secondary Full Load Current) / (Primary Full Load Current)

Types of Transformers: 

  1. Insulating transformers : Common two-winding transformers are often called insulating transformers. The primary winding and the secondary winding are separate and not connected.
  2. Auto transformers : An autotransformer has its windings interconnected so that the primary and the secondary share the same windings.
  3. Constant output voltage transformers : Constant output voltage transformers or voltage regulating transformers produce a nearly constant output voltage, even though the input voltage may not be constant.

Ideal Transformer: 

In ideal transformer shown below, which has the following assumptions

  1. Its windings have no ohmic resistance, therefore it has no I2R loss (copper loss).
  2. There is no magnetic leakage, hence which has no core losses.
  3. The core has infinite permeability

Ideal transformer

This equivalent circuit can be further simplified by referring all quantities in the secondary side of the transformer to primary side.

Equivalent Circuit: The equivalent circuit of a machine is the circuit representation in terms of standard circuit elements which truly represents the performance of the particular equipment (see the below figure).

Equivalent transformerimage002

  • Parameters : R1 = Primary winding resistance, R2 = Secondary winding resistance, X1 = Primary winding reactance, X2 = Secondary winding reactance, I0 = No load or exciting current, Ic= Core loss component of exciting current, Im = magnetising component of exciting current, Rc = Core loss equivalent resistance, Xm = Magnetising reactance, V1 = Primary voltage source, and V2 = Secondary terminal voltage.

Equivalent Circuit Referred to Primary Side:When all parameters are referred to primary side.

 Here,

image003

image004

  • R'2 is Secondary resistance referred to primary side
  • X'2 is Secondary leakage reactance referred to primary side
  • I'2 is Secondary current referred to primary side
  • V'2 is Secondary voltage referred to primary side

Equations

  • Secondary induced emf referred to primary side:

image007

  • Equivalent resistance referred t0 primary side:

image009

  • Equivalent reactance referred to primary side:

image010

  • Equivalent impedance referred to primary side:

image011

Equivalent Circuit Referred to Secondary Side:When all parameters refereed to secondary side.

image013

  • Primary resistance referred to secondary side:

image014

  • Primary leakage reactance referred to secondary side:

image015

  • Primary induced emf referred to secondary side:

image016

  • Primary current referred to secondary side:

image017

  • Equivalent resistance referred to secondary side:

image009

  • Equivalent reactance referred to secondary side:

image018

Voltage Regulation: Voltage regulation is defined as the raise in secondary terminal voltage expressed as a fraction of full load rate voltage when full load is removed while maintains input (primary) voltage constant.

Voltage regulation:

image019

it is same as

image020

 

  • Voltage regulation (at tagging power factor):

image021

 

  • Voltage regulation (at leading power factor):

1

 

Losses in Transformer

  • Iron or Core Loss (Constant): The losses which occur in a transformer are as follows:
    • Pi = Ph + Pe Where, Pi = Iron or core loss, Ph = Hysteresis loss, and Pe = Eddy current loss.
    • This loss in the sum of hysteresis (Ph) and eddy current loss (Pe). It is denoted by Pi.
  • Eddy Current Loss:                                       image022

where, Ke = Proportionality constant depends upon core material, f = Supply frequency, Bm = Maximum flux density in the core, and t = Thickness of laminations.

But,

image023       

 image024

Eddy current loss is proportional to the square of the applied voltage and independent of frequency. It can be reduced by thin lamination.

  • Hysteresis Loss

image025

 and 

image023

Therefore

image027

Where, x = Steinmetz constant (range from 1.6 to 2.5). Hysteresis loss depends upon both the applied voltage and frequency.

  • Copper Loss or I2R Loss (Variable):
    • Total copper loss in transformer = primary winding copper loss + secondary winding copper loss.

                                    image028

Transformer Efficiency

  • Transformer Efficiency (η ) = Output power / Input power
  • Transformer Efficiency (η ) = Output power / (Output power + Losses)
  • Transformer Efficiency (η ) = output power / (output power+ iron losses + copper losses)

                      image030

Where, Pi = Iron or core loss, Pc = Copper loss

Transformer Tests

Open circuit and short circuit test are performed to determine the circuit constants efficiency and regulation without actually loading the transformer.

  1. Open Circuit (OC) Test:
  • OC test is carried out at rated voltage usually on low voltage side with high voltage side open.
  • This test is used to determine the core loss at rated voltage condition. 
  • Since, the secondary terminals are open (no load is connected across the secondary), current drawn from the source is called as no load current. 
  • Under no-load condition the power input to the transformer is equal to the sum of losses in the primary winding resistance and core loss. 
  • Since, no load current is very small, the loss in winding resistance is neglected. Hence, on no load the power drawn from the source is dissipated as heat in the core.

image031

 

OC no load

  • Wattmeter reading = iron or core loss Pi
  • Voltmeter reading = primary rated voltage x (V1)
  • Ammeter reading = no load current (I0)

image032

image033

image034

image035

image036

  1. Short Circuit Test:
  • Suppose the input voltage is reduced to a small fraction of rated value and secondary terminals are short-circuited. A current will circulate in the secondary winding.
  • Since a small fraction of rated voltage is applied to the primary winding, the flux in the core and hence the core loss is very small. Hence, the power input on short circuit is dissipated as heat in the winding
  • Short test is carried out at rated current to determine the full load copper loss.

image037

SC test

  • Wattmeter reading = full load copper loss of transformer (Pcfi)
  • Voltmeter reading = short circuit voltage (I1SC)
  • Ammeter reading = full load primary current f(I1SC)

                           image038

  • Equivalent resistance:

                                              image039

image040               and         image041

Autotransformer

This single winding is “tapped” at various points along its length to provide a percentage of the primary voltage supply across its secondary load. Then the autotransformer has the usual magnetic core but only has one winding, which is common to both the primary and secondary circuits.

Therefore in an autotransformer, the primary and secondary windings are linked together both electrically and magnetically. The main advantage of this type of transformer design is that it can be made a lot cheaper for the same VA rating, but the biggest disadvantage of an autotransformer is that it does not have the primary/secondary winding isolation of a conventional double wound transformer.

The section of winding designated as the primary part of the winding is connected to the AC power source with the secondary being part of this primary winding. An autotransformer can also be used to step the supply voltage up or down by reversing the connections. If the primary is the total winding and is connected to a supply, and the secondary circuit is connected across only a portion of the winding, then the secondary voltage is “stepped-down” as shown

 

This single winding is “tapped” at various points along its length to provide a percentage of the primary voltage supply across its secondary load. Then the autotransformer has the usual magnetic core but only has one winding, which is common to both the primary and secondary circuits.

Therefore in an autotransformer the primary and secondary windings are linked together both electrically and magnetically. The main advantage of this type of transformer design is that it can be made a lot cheaper for the same VA rating, but the biggest disadvantage of an autotransformer is that it does not have the primary/secondary winding isolation of a conventional double wound transformer.

The section of winding designated as the primary part of the winding is connected to the AC power source with the secondary being part of this primary winding. An autotransformer can also be used to step the supply voltage up or down by reversing the connections. If the primary is the total winding and is connected to a supply, and the secondary circuit is connected across only a portion of the winding, then the secondary voltage is “stepped-down” as shown.

 

The voltages developed in the windings are dependent on the flux linkages. The windings are wound on the same magnetic core so they link the same flux.

  • V1 / N1= V2 / N2.

So whenever voltage V1 exist across primary winding, then voltage V2 will be induced across the secondary winding irrespective of changes in connections.

Similarly the magnetic circuit demands that mmf should be balanced. It implies the primary side ampere turn should equal the secondary side ampere turn.

  • I1 . N1= I2 . N2

Here,

  • Autotransformers are also used for voltage regulation in distribution networks, for starting of induction motors and as lighting dimmers. Autotransformers are also used in electric traction.
  • One main disadvantage about autotransformer is that the primary and secondary are electrically connected. So the electrical disturbance i.e. high voltage transients from one side can be easily transmitted to the other side.
  • The other disadvantage is that the impedance of the autotransformer is considerably low, so the short circuit current will be more.
  • More over an open circuit in common winding results in full primary side voltage across the load which is harmful.

Disadvantages of an Autotransformer

  • The main disadvantage of an autotransformer is that it does not have the primary to secondary winding isolation of a conventional double wound transformer. Then an autotransformer can not safely be used for stepping down higher voltages to much lower voltages suitable for smaller loads.
  • If the secondary side winding becomes open-circuited, current stops flowing through the primary winding stopping the transformer action resulting in the full primary voltage being applied to the secondary terminals.
  • If the secondary circuit suffers a short-circuit condition, the resulting primary current would be much larger than an equivalent double wound transformer due to the increased flux linkage damaging the autotransformer.
  • Since the neutral connection is common to both the primary and secondary windings, earthing of the secondary winding automatically Earth’s the primary as there is no isolation between the two windings. Double wound transformers are sometimes used to isolate equipment from earth.

The autotransformer has many uses and applications including the starting of induction motors, used to regulate the voltage of transmission lines, and can be used to transform voltages when the primary to secondary ratio is close to unity.

An autotransformer can also be made from conventional two-winding transformers by connecting the primary and secondary windings together in series and depending upon how the connection is made, the secondary voltage may add to, or subtract from, the primary voltage.

Three Phase Transformer

Three phase transformers are used throughout industry to change values of three-phase voltage and current. Since three-phase power is the most common way in which power is produced, transmitted, and used, an understanding of how three phase transformer connections are made is essential.

  • A three-phase transformer is constructed by winding three single phase transformers on a single core.
  • These transformers are put into an enclosure which is then filled with dielectric materials such as air, plastic or oil.
  • The dielectric material performs several functions.
  • Since it is a dielectric, a non-conductor of electricity, it provides electrical insulation between the windings and the case. 
  • It is also used to help provide cooling and to prevent the formation of moisture, which can deteriorate the winding insulation.

Three-Phase Transformer Connections

  • Three-phase transformers can consist of either three separate single-phase transformers, or three windings on a three-legged, four-legged, or five-legged core.
  • The high-voltage and low-voltage sides can be connected independently in either wye or delta.
  • As a result, the ratio of the 3‑phase input voltage to the 3‑phase output voltage depends not only upon the turns ratio of the transformers but also upon how they are connected.

There are only 4 possible transformer combinations:

  1. Delta-to-Delta Connection: It is used for industrial applications.
  2. Delta to Wye Connection: It is popular for stepping up transmission lines to four-wire services when neutrals are needed.
  3. Wye to Delta Connection: It is used to step-down utilities high line voltages.
  4. Wye-to-Wye Connection: It is commonly used for interior wiring systems

Y/Y Connection: A Y/Y connection for the primary and secondary windings of a three-phase transformer is shown in the figure below.

 image001

Y/Y connected three-phase transformer

  • The line-to-line voltage on each side of the three-phase transformer is √3 times the nominal voltage of the single-phase transformer.
  • The main advantage of Y/Y connection is that we have access to the neutral terminal on each side and it can be grounded if desired.
  • Without grounding the neutral terminals, the Y/Y operation satisfactory only when the three-phase load is balanced.
  • The electrical insulation is stressed only to about 58% of the line voltage in a Y-connected transformer.

Y/Δ Connection: This connection as shown in the figure below is very suitable for step-down applications.

image002

Y/Δ connected three-phase transformerThe secondary winding current is about 58% of the load current.

  • On the primary side the voltages are from line to neutral, whereas the voltages are from line to line on the secondary side.
  • Therefore, the voltage and the current in the primary are out of phase with the voltage and the current in the secondary.
  • In a Y/Δ connection, the distortion in the waveform of the induced voltages is not as drastic as it is in a Y/Y-connected transformer when the neutral is not connected to the ground the reason is that the distorted currents in the primary give rise to a circulating current in the Δ-connected secondary.

Δ/Y Connection: This connection as shown in figure below is proper for a step-up application.

Δ/Y connected three-phase transformer

image003

  • However, this connection is now being exploited to satisfy the requirements of both three-phase and the single-phase loads.
  • In this case, we use a four-wire secondary.
  • The single-phase loads are taken care of by the three line-to-neutral circuits.
  • An attempt is invariably made to distribute the single-phase loads almost equally among three-phases.

Δ/Δ Connection: as shown below the three transformers with the primary and secondary windings connected as Δ/Δ.

Δ/Δ connected three-phase transformer

image004

  • The line-to-line voltage on either side is equal to the corresponding phase voltage. Therefore, this arrangement is useful when the voltages are not very high.
  • The advantage of this connection is that even under unbalanced loads the three-phase load voltages remain substantially equal.
  • This disadvantage of Δ/Δ connection is the absence of a neutral terminal on either side.
  • Another drawback is that the electrical insulation is stressed to the line voltage.
  • Therefore, a Δ-connection winding requires more expensive insulation than a Y-connected winding for the same power rating.

 

 

Posted by:

Yash BansalYash BansalMember since Nov 2018
Content Manager (GATE)
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