The Cathode Ray Oscilloscope
The main part of the C.R.O. is a highly evacuated glass tube housing parts that generate a beam of electrons, accelerates them, shapes them into a narrow beam, and provides external connections to the sets of plates described m above for changing the direction of the beam.
Component of C.R.O
- K, an indirectly heated cathode that provides a source of electrons for the beam by “boiling” them out of the cathode.
- P, the anode (or plate) which is circular with a small central hole. The potential of P creates an electric field that accelerates the electrons, some of which emerge from the hole as a fine beam. This beam lies along the central axis of the tube.
- G, the grid. Controlling the potential of the grid controls the number of electrons for the beam, and hence the intensity of the spot on the screen where the beam hits.
- F, the focusing cylinder. This aids in concentrating the electron beam into a thin straight line much as a lens operates in optics.
- X, Y, deflection plate pairs. The X plates are used for deflecting the beam left to right (the x-direction) by means of the “ramp” voltage. The Y plates are used for the deflection of the beam in the vertical direction. Voltages on the X and Y sets of plates determine where the beam will strike the screen and cause a spot of light.
- S, the screen. This is coated on the inside with a material that fluoresces with green light (usually) where the electrons are striking.
As well as this tube, there are several electronic circuits required to operate the tube, all within the C.R.O. along with the tube explained below
- A power supply, operated from the 110 volts 60 cycle per second electrical “mains”. This supply provides all the voltages required for the different circuits within the C.R.O. for operation of the tube.
- A “sawtooth”, or “ramp” signal generator which makes the spot move left to right on the screen. External controls for this circuit allow variation of the sweep width and the frequency of the sweep signal. Because of the persistence of our vision, this sweep is often fast enough that what we see on the screen is a continuous horizontal line.
- Amplifiers for the internally generated ramp signal, and for the “unknown” signal which we hook up to the C.R.O. for the purpose of displaying it.
- Shift devices allow us to control the mean position of the beam; up or down, or left to right.
- The synchronizer circuit. This circuit allows us to synchronize the “unknown” signal with the ramp signal such that the resulting display is a nice clear signal like a snapshot of the unknown voltage vs. time.
CRO (Cathode Ray Oscilloscope)
CRO is a device that provides accurate time and amplitude of voltage signals over a wide range of frequencies.
Deflection of Electron Beam
Where L = distance between the screen and the centre of deflecting plates (m)
Id = length of deflecting plates (m)
Ed = potential between deflecting plates (V)
d = distance between deflecting plates (m)
Ea = voltage of pre-accelerating anode (V)
Velocity of Electron Beam
Where, e = charge of electron = 16 × 10-19 C
m = mass of electron = 9.1 × 10-31 kg
Where, y = displacement in y-direction (m)
e = charge of an electron (C)
m = mass of electron (kg)
x = displacement in X-direction (m)
Ey = electric field intensity in the y-direction (V/m)
Vox = velocity of the electron when entering in the fields of deflecting plates (m/s)
Frequency limit of CRO
Where Vox = velocity of the electron beam in X-direction before it enters in deflecting plates
Id = length of vertical deflection plates
Rising Time of Vertical Amplifier
Where, BW = Bandwidth of oscilloscope (CRO)
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