Gram Nyayalayas - History, Composition, Necessity

By : Neha Dhyani

Updated : Feb 22, 2023, 12:35

Gram stands for villages; therefore, Gram Nyayalayas are village courts that the government of India has established for providing a quick and easy justice system in the rural areas. The act for its incorporation was passed in 2008, the target was to create a minimum of 5000 nyayalayas in the villages of India, but only 256 of them are working in 10 states.

Composition of Gram Nyayalayas

  • You need to know that a Nyayadhikari governs these village courts. He gets the exact power, wages, and perks just like a Judicial Magistrate of first class. The State Government elects him by conferring with the respective High Court.
  • The gram nyayalayas get to administer the areas assigned to him by the State government by consulting the respective High Court.
  • These courts can also operate as mobile courts within the area specified to him.
  • Nyayalaya's financial jurisdiction is set by the High courts.
  • You will be amazed to know that these courts have a special power; they can accept a few pieces of evidence that are usually not accepted under the Indian Evidence act.
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The National Federation of Societies filed a writ petition in 2019 for quick justice for the establishment of Village courts written in the 2008 Act. It was noted by the Supreme Court of India that there are various states where the Gram Nyayalayas are still not operational. Therefore, it transmitted a statement to the states to establish these courts.

Necessity Gram Nyayalayas in India

It has been observed that in India, the impoverished and rural areas have restricted access to justice, and this has been a recurring issue for years.

Keeping these issues in mind, there were a few steps taken to resolve the issues, such as:

  • Vivification of the procedural laws
  • Starting fast-track courts for quick justice
  • Establishing alternative dispute resolution procedures
  • Provision of free legal help to the poor people.

These village courts provide assistance in the following areas:

  • Taking justice to the fourth level
  • Ensuring justice at the micro-local level
  • Reducing the administrative stress on the district courts
  • Reducing the dependence on the extra-constitutional justice forums
  • Lessening the expenditure of litigation for people who cannot afford the expensive fee

The Gram Nyayalayas are an important part of the functioning of villages in India. Although the system definitely has its limitations, it can potentially be strengthened and institutionalized as crucial dispensers of justice in the legal and political framework of the country.

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FAQs on Gram Nyayalayas

Q1. What are the limitations of the Gram Nyayalayas?

The major limitation is that the nyayadhikar is are not selected through merit-based examinations; therefore, there is a risk of imprudent conferment of justice.

Q2. Where are the headquarters of Gram Nyayalayas situated?

Every Gram Nyayalayas headquarter is either situated at the headquarters of the intermediate Panchayat in which the village court is located or maybe at some other place notified as per the State Government.

Q3. What are the advantages of Gram Nyayalayas?

The major benefit is that people will not have to go to the high court and spend a lot of money, plus it is a less time-consuming and quick process to get justice.

Q4. What is the purpose of the Gram Nyayalaya Act?

Gram Nyayalayas are village courts for speedy and easy access to the justice system in the rural areas of India