Coastal Plain of India
From the Gulf of Kachchh, it moves to Goa, Karnataka, and Kerala and by touching Kanyakumari is a coastline along the Arabian Sea between western Ghats and the coast. The land is plain and is known as the western coastal plain. From Kanyakumari, the coast moves northwards and reaches up to West Bengal. This part of the coastline is along the Bay of Bengal. Between the Eastern Ghats and the coasts, the land is plain and is known as the Eastern Coastal plain. The total length of the coastline is 7516.6 km. Such a long coastline is very useful for our country. Fishing is the prime occupation of the people living on the coasts. Many Seaports have been developed along the coast.
Western Coastal Plain
- The western coastal plain starts at Gujarat and ends at Kanyakumari and lies between the western ghats and the Arabian Sea. It can be divided into three parts:
a. Gujarat coast
b. Konkan coast
c. Malabar coast
- The Gujarat coast lies in the northern part between the Gulf of Kachchh and the Gulf of Khambat. The Konkan coast lies in the middle part, and the Malabar Coast lies in the southern part of the western coastal plain.
- Konkan coast starts from the Gulf of Khambat and stretches up to Goa. This very rocky and uneven. To warn ships and fishing boats, many lighthouses have been built along the coast. Mumbai, India'sIndia's biggest port, is located on the Konkan coast. The Konkan coast is rich in oil deposits.
- The southern part of the western coastal plain is called the Malabar Coast. It lies between Goa and Kanyakumari. Small and shallow water lakes are the beauty of this area, known as lagoons or backwaters.
- These lagoons are connected to each other by canals. Kochi is the most important seaport of the Malabar coast.
Eastern Coastal Plain
- It begins from West Bengal in the north and stretches up to Kanyakumari. It passes through the coastal areas of Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu. It lies between the Eastern Ghats and the Bay of Bengal. The eastern coastal plain is wider than the western coastal plain.
It is divided as:
a. Coromandel coast
b. Northern Circars
- The Eastern Coastal plain's northern part is called the Northern Circars, and the southern part is called the Coromandel coast.
- Rivers like Kaveri, Krishna and Mahanadi form their deltas along the Eastern coastal plain. The deltas formed by these rivers are highly fertile and are called the ''rice bowls of India''.
- Kolkata, Chennai, Paradwip, and Vishakhapatnam are important seaports on the Eastern coastal plain.
Contribution of coastal plains to India
- The coastal plains play a major role in the economic development of India. As the deltas in these areas are highly fertile they contribute in agriculture and rice is the prime crop of cultivation. There are many economic centres including trade, industrial, tourist, fishing and salt-making. The plains provide important hinterlands for big ports, inevitable for economic growth of any nation. They are the prime centres of national and international trade.
- Coastal plains at some parts also have major deposits of mineral oil and many extraction centres and plants are located in and around them.
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