Gender Pay Gap in India

By : Neha Dhyani

Updated : Mar 24, 2022, 13:31

According to the 2018 World Economic Forum Global Gender Gap Report, India is rated 108th out of 149 nations on the gender gap index. Iceland topped the global ranking for the tenth year in a row, having closed more than 85.8% of the overall gender gap.

'Mind the Gap: The State of Employment in India,' a report from Oxfam India, was recently issued. The paper examines gender discrepancies in India's labour market and the effect of social identities such as religion, status, etc. Oxfam India is a subsidiary of Oxfam International registered as a "non-profit" organization under Section 8 of the Indian Companies Act, 2013. Its mission is to empower the impoverished to create a more equal, just, and sustainable society. It talks about the Gender Pay Gap in India.

Gender Pay Gap in India

  • For performing the same tasks, women get paid 34% less than similarly qualified males.
  • According to estimates from the National Sample Survey Office (2011-12), women were paid Rs.105 and Rs.123 less per day as compared to men in urban and rural areas, respectively; In the case, of casual workers, this amount was Rs. 72 and Rs. 47 for urban and rural areas respectively.
  • According to the report, if the household chores the women in India perform get included in the NSSO's work definition, the FLFPR in 2011-12 would increase from 20.5 percent to 81.7 percent, which is higher than men's rate.
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Variation in Female Labor Force Participation Rate

  • Muslim women are primarily employed in the basic manufacturing that is done in households, Schedule Caste (SCs) are involved in construction and menial tasks like waste collection, and non-SCs in education and health care.
  • Over one-seventh of urban employed women, are employed in the education sector.
  • Seventy-five percent of rural women continue to work in agriculture, mainly in low-wage jobs of the agricultural sector like transplanting crops, etc.
  • The number of working women is comparatively more in the Southern and North-Eastern states, although the number is still low by international standards.

Reasons for the Gap in Employment

  • Inequality in the Indian labour market is mainly due to a lack of good jobs and a disparity in pay.
  • The burden of household chores and care duties that are unpaid, and the persistence of other regressive societal norms contribute to women's low labour participation.

The gender pay gap in India is a burning issue. These issues have to be highlighted if India wants to grow efficiently.

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FAQs on Gender Pay Gap

Q.1. Where is India ranked in the Gender Pay Gap Index?

India is ranked 108th out of 149 nations in the Gender Pay Gap Index.

Q.2. Which country is ranked 1st in the Gender Pay Gap index?

Iceland has been ranked 1st in the Gender Pay Gap Index for the 10th consecutive time.

Q.3. What is Gender Pay Gap?

The gender pay gap is defined as the average difference in payment between working men and women.

Q.4. What does the gender pay gap in India look like? How much less money do women earn in India as compared to men?

Women in the country earn 19 per cent less than men, according to the Monster Salary Index (MSI) published in March 2019. This indicates a serious gender pay gap in India.