Abdur Razzaq Traveller [1413 - 1482]

By : Neha Dhyani

Updated : Apr 6, 2022, 12:18

From January 1442 to January 1445, Abdur Razzaq served as the ambassador of Shah Rukh, the Timurid dynasty ruler of Persia, in Kozhikode, India. He wrote a 45-page travelogue of his trip to India.

Abdur Razzaq Traveller's accounts include descriptions of his life and events in Calicut during the reign of the Zamorin (King Samudri of Kozhikode in Kerala) in the Ancient City of Vijayanagar at Hampi.

Who was Abdur Razzaq Traveller?

On November 7, 1413, Abdur Razzaq Persian Traveller was born in Herat (now in Afghanistan) to Jalal-ud-Din Ishaq, the qazi and imam of Shah Rukh's court.

His most important assignment was to lead an official mission to India. Abdur Razzaq Persian Traveller was a witness to political and military events in Herat and Samarqand from then on.

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The Journey of Abdur Razzaq Traveller in India

Abdur Razzaq Persian Traveller and a Persian Islamic scholar and Timurid chronicler travelled to the Vijaynagar Kingdom during the reign of Deva Raya II of the Sangama dynasty. The following are some essential facts about him:

  • In 1441, Shah Rukh of Persia dispatched Kamal-ud-din Abdur Razzaq, as an emissary on a three-year mission, most of which he spent at the court of the Zamorin of Calicut (King Samudri of Kozhikode in Kerala).
  • Abdur Razzaq Traveller in India was hesitant to set out on a journey and ventured out only at the behest of the Monarch. He left Herat in January 1442.
  • After battling the perils at sea, Abdur Razzaq landed in Muscat for safety, travelled to Kariat, became seriously ill due to the heat, but eventually recovered enough to embark on an 18-day voyage to Calicut in Southwest India.
  • Abdur Razzaq was not impressed by the Calicut natives, whom he described as scantily clad and practising polyandry. His stay in Calicut was brief because the Vijayanagar King had invited him to his kingdom.
  • Abdur Razzaq arrived in Vijayanagar after passing through Mangalore.
  • He chronicled his travels in the Matla-us-Sadain wa Majma-ul-Bahrain or The Rising of Two Auspicious Constellations and the Meeting of Two Oceans.

Abdur Razzaq Traveller in India and the Iranian ambassador to the Deccan (southern India), completed his year-long stay at the court of the Raja of Vijaynagar in Hampi. He left the city and travelled 18 days to Mangalore, then to Kalahat, Muscat, Khorfakkan, and finally to the port of Hurmuz.

Abdur Razzaq Traveller in India was at sea for a total of seventy-five days and never ventured out to travel again after that.

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FAQs on Abdur Razzaq Traveller

Q.1. Who was Abdur Razzaq Traveller?

Abdur Razzaq Traveller was an Islamic scholar and historian who travelled to India during the reign of Deva Raya II, the finest king of the Sangama dynasty.

Q.2. What can we learn about the Vijayanagar kingdom from the description of Abdur Razzaq Traveller?

Abdur Razzaq Traveller, described Vijayanagar as a "city the pupil of the eye has never seen, and the ear of intelligence has never heard".

Q.3. What did Abdur Razzaq Traveller swear in his travelogues?

Abdur Razzaq Traveller was a reluctant voyager who only left Herat at the request of his Monarch and swore in his travelogue that he would never travel again.

Q.4. Why did Abdur Razzaq Traveller, never want to travel again?

Abdur Razzaq Traveller had his reasons for never wanting to travel again. His brother died on the voyage to India, and he got caught up in court intrigues that nearly killed him.