Fani Cyclone

By : Neha Dhyani

Updated : Jun 14, 2022, 17:39

The Indian Ocean region experiences depressions or accumulations of warm air along with low-pressure pocket formation. Gradually, these elements turn into massive tropical cyclones. It has been statistically proven that about 35% of these formations strengthen into cyclones, with just 7% worsening into very severe cyclones.

The Fani Cyclone is also a tropical cyclone that was categorised as a severe cyclone after the 1976 cyclone that made landfall in India, damaging a vast territory.

History of Cyclones in India

Our country, India, is affected by different cyclones each year. Here is a list that specifies the cyclones that hit India in the preceding years -

  • Amphan super cyclone in 2020
  • Nargis, an Extremely Severe Cyclonic Storm that affected India in 2008
  • Extremely Severe Cyclonic Storm Hudhud hit India in 2014
  • In 2013, Phailin was the most powerful tropical storm to hit India.

Path of Fani Cyclone

The Fani Cyclone made its landfall in Odisha and it was the most affected part of India.

Then, it moved to Andhra Pradesh and finally to Bangladesh causing severe damage and deaths.

Cause of the Fani Cyclone

The Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) specified the fact that extreme global warming, along with depressions developed in the Bay of Bengal, is the major reason behind the formation of the Fani Cyclone.

IMD is the primary agency engaged in meteorological observations, weather forecasting, and seismology under the Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES) of the Government of India.

It is based in Delhi and conducts numerous observation points across India and Antarctica. IMD has branches in different cities across the country including Mumbai, Chennai, Delhi, Kolkata, Nagpur, and Guwahati.

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The Aftermath of Fani Cyclone

Indian states have experienced severe aftermaths after the Fani Cyclone made its landfall. The most affected state was Odisha, and the total damage was assessed at 120 billion rupees. This massive cyclone has caused the deaths of almost 72 people, 64 of them belong to Odisha. The districts of Puri and Khordha in Odisha were the hardest hit.

The eminent temple of Puri, Jagannath Temple, had faced damage too, and it cost around 51 million rupees to repair the damage. This devastating calamity not only endangered the animals’ lives but also caused massive environmental destruction. Despite not meeting such severity, the state of Andhrapradesh faced a loss of almost 586.2 million rupees. Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi declared that the government had given subsidies of more than ten billion rupees to the Fani-affected states.

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Facts of Fani Cyclone

The formation of the Fani Cyclone, which is the first severe cyclone of 2019, began on April 26th and was dissipated on May 5th.

The wind speed of the Fani Cyclone was estimated to be 200 to 230 km/hr by the Indian Meteorological Department (IMD). In reality, the Fani Cyclone's wind speed reached around 180 km/hr, causing damage to localities, and electricity poles, disrupting telecommunication services and uprooting trees.

The strongest winds were 215 km/h sustained for 3 minutes (130 mph) and 280 km/h sustained for 1 minute (175 mph). The lowest pressure of the Fani Cyclone was (mbar) 932 hPa; 27.52 inHg (Estimated and calculated at 900 mbar by the JTWC)

It can be concluded that severe cyclones like the Fani Cyclone are taking place more frequently because of the elevated atmospheric temperature. We should take more responsible actions towards preserving nature to prevent such calamities.

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FAQs on Fani Cyclone

Q1. Which country named the Fani Cyclone? 

The Fani Cyclone was named by Bangladesh, a neighbouring country to India. Fani is pronounced as' Foni ', and it refers to the ‘snake’. 

Q2. Which state was impacted the most due to the landfall of the Fani Cyclone?

Odisha was impacted the most due to the landfall of the Fani Cyclone. The Puri and Khordha districts of Odisha were seen to be affected the most. 

Q3. What was the wind velocity when the Fani Cyclone made its landfall?

The Indian Meteorological Department presumed the wind velocity of the Fani Cyclone to be 200 to 230 km/hr. In reality, the wind speed of the Fani Cyclone reached almost 180 km/hr, damaging houses, electrical poles and uprooting trees. 

Q4. What was the reason behind Cyclone Fani?

The Fani Cyclone was formed in the Bay of Bengal during a period of high anthropogenic aerosol concentrations combined with extremely high sea surface temperatures. This led to the formation of the tropical cyclone with the combined impact of atmospheric aerosols and provincial weather warming.