Afghan Peace Process

By : Neha Dhyani

Updated : Mar 30, 2022, 8:39

The Afghan Peace Process includes initiatives and conversations aimed at ending the conflict in Afghanistan, which began in 2001 and ended in 2021 when the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan fell.

Although there had been infrequent efforts since the war began, the peace movement accelerated in 2018 amidst talks between the Taliban, the primary insurgent group competing against the then-Afghan government, and the US, which maintained a presence in the country to assist the Afghan government with thousands of troops.

Afghan Peace Process - Overview

Two peace agreements were signed as part of the Afghanistan Peace Process. The Afghan government and the insurgent group Hezb-e Islami Gulbuddin signed the first treaty on 22nd September 2016. On 29th February 2020, the United States and the Taliban signed their second peace pact demanding that American soldiers leave Afghanistan within 14 months if the Taliban adhered to the terms of the deal.

The United States committed to leaving Afghanistan by 1st May 2021 if the Taliban reached an accord with the Afghan government but also promised to keep terrorist groups like al-Qaeda as well as the Islamic State from developing a foothold.

Following the US-Taliban accord, insurgent attacks on Afghan security forces increased dramatically. Peace talks between Afghan government officials and the Taliban began in September 2020 in Doha, Qatar, but civilian casualties increased thereafter. Approximately 800 Afghan civilians were murdered, and over 1,600 others were injured due to the strikes in May and June 2021.

Following the Taliban's takeover of Kabul in August 2021, the Afghan government initiated discussions with the Taliban, which concluded in the government's unconditional capitulation. The Taliban have asked for a peaceful transition of power, and the government has stated that it will comply. The administration, on the other hand, has asked for the power to be passed to an interim government, whilst the Taliban wanted a complete power transfer.

Important UPSC Topics
UPSC ExamUPSC Exam Date
UPSC NotificationUPSC Eligibility
UPSC Online ApplicationUPSC Exam Pattern
UPSC SyllabusUPSC Previous Year Question Papers
UPSC Cut OffUPSC Preparation Strategy
UPSC BooksUPSC Exam Analysis
UPSC Admit CardUPSC Results

Recent Developments in Afghan Peace Process

The President of the United States has proposed a New Peace Initiative (Plan) to determine the path to peace in Afghanistan. The plan called for a regional summit with foreign ministers from the United States, India, Russia, China, Pakistan, and Iran to debate a "united approach" to Afghanistan under the auspices of the United Nations.

The United States is pressuring the Taliban to ratify a 90-day cease-fire deal that will allow the Afghan Peace Process to proceed. The US will not be "dictating terms" to Afghan groups but will instead help them form an inclusive interim administration, agree on "foundational principles" for a new political order, and establish a "permanent and comprehensive cease-fire."

India's Role in the Afghan Peace Process

India is a key stakeholder in the Afghan Peace Process. India backs all-inclusive, Afghan-led, Afghan-owned, and Afghan-controlled efforts for peaceful coexistence in Afghanistan.

India has made significant investments in infrastructure development, security force training, and equipment delivery. The Afghan Senate, the Zaranj-Delaram Highway, and the Afghanistan-India Friendship Dam are all its major projects (Salma Dam). In addition, India's help in the form of almost USD 3 billion in programs and hundreds of modest development projects (such as schools, hospitals, and water projects) has solidified India's position in Afghanistan.

Afghanistan is also a route to the Central Asian nations that are wealthy in oil and minerals. Regardless of who is in control in Afghanistan, the land routes between India and Central Asia are under their authority (via Afghanistan).

For regional peace and security, Afghanistan must be independent, sovereign, democratic, pluralistic, and inclusive. The Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism (CCIT) should be adopted as soon as possible as part of the Afghan Peace Process.

More Current Affairs Topics
Difference Between Urban and RuralDigital India [DI]
Difference Between Allied and Axis PowersDandi March
Dairy Sahakar Scheme103 Constitutional Amendment Act
104 Constitutional Amendment ActAcute Encephalitis Syndrome
Aditya L1 MissionAdjournment Motion

FAQs on Afghan Peace Process

Q.1. What is the Afghan Peace Process?

The Afghan Peace Process includes initiatives and conversations aimed at ending the conflict in Afghanistan, which began in 2001 and ended in 2021 when the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan fell.

Q.2. How many agreements were signed as a part of the Afghan Peace Process?

Two peace agreements were signed as part of the Afghan Peace Process: between the Afghani government and the insurgent group Hezb-e Islami Gulbuddin and between the United States and the Taliban.

Q.3. As per the Afghan Peace Process, by when did the United States commit to leaving Afghanistan?

As per Afghanistan Peace Process, The United States committed to leaving Afghanistan by 1st May 2021.

Q.4. Why did the United States invade Afghanistan?

The United States invaded Afghanistan on 7th October 2001 to avenge the 11th September terrorist attacks, which were perpetrated by al-Qaeda.