Advanced Technology Vehicle [ATV]

By : Neha Dhyani

Updated : Sep 16, 2022, 9:00

Advanced Technology Vehicle (ATV) is a native sounding rocket developed by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). This is a modified version of the scramjet engine. It was made to test the development of an air-breathing, dual-mode scramjet (supersonic combustion ramjet) engine. ISRO conducted an experimental mission in 2010 and 2016 with the Advanced Technology Vehicle.

These voyages conducted in the ISRO scramjet test were an important step in the development of the Air Breathing Propulsion System. Read more about the ATV and the tests conducted by ISRO here.

What is Advanced Technology Vehicle?

Advanced Technology Vehicle is a rocket that was developed based on the Rohini-500 by the ISRO. The ATV is a modified version of a sounding rocket designed to perform scientific experiments and take measurements during its flight. The India Advanced Technology was designed for the following purposes:

  • To examine the development of a dual-mode scramjet engine.
  • To demonstrate the air-breathing propulsion technology.

Advanced Technology Vehicle - Overview

The Advanced Technology Vehicle initiative was established to assess the feasibility of developing a native dual-mode air-breathing scramjet engine. The scramjet engine has a hypersonic speed of Mach 6. The rocket is modeled on the Rohini-560. ISRO has performed two test missions with the Advanced Technology Vehicle as of 2016.

With the Advanced Technology Vehicle mission, India has become the fourth country to successfully develop the air-breathing scramjet engine technology. ISRO's scramjet engine uses the following components:

  • Hydrogen Oxidizer
  • Fuel Atmospheric Air

India Advanced Technology Development

Advanced Technology Vehicle is a device that the Indian Space Research Organization developed. The development of the ISRO scramjet engine was lengthy and complicated, involving numerous technological obstacles. Here are some details about the program:

  • It involved combining extremely high-velocity air (about 1.5 kilometers per second) with fuel, obtaining stable ignition, maintaining the flame, and ensuring that the flame was not extinguished.
  • The forward thrust was generated by combining atmospheric oxygen from the environment with onboard fuel in air-breathing rocket systems. According to a rocket technologist, this was in contrast to traditional chemical rocket systems, which carried oxygen as well as fuel onboard.

After the Advanced Technology Vehicle test, it was established that air-breathing rockets are lighter and more efficient than traditional rockets, cutting the cost of space transportation. Therefore, the cost of launching a satellite into orbit will be significantly reduced.

ISRO Scramjet Test

As part of the ISRO scramjet test, two test missions were launched using the Advanced Technology Vehicle. The tests were carried out to determine the native scramjet engine’s success. Here are the details about both the tests:

Advanced Technology Vehicle - Test 01

ISRO performed the first flight test of the Advanced Technology Vehicle, ATV-D01, on March 3, 2010, at 03:00 UTC. At lift-off, it measured 3,000 kilograms (6,600 pounds) and measured 9.10 meters (29.9 feet) in length with just a diameter of 0.56 meters (1.8 ft).

As a demonstration of air-breathing propulsion technology, it included an inactive scramjet engine combustor module. The ATV was able to maintain a dynamic pressure of 80 kilopascals for seven seconds while reaching Mach 6. (12 psi).

Advanced Technology Vehicle - Test 02

The second ISRO scramjet test mission, named ATV-D02, was conducted from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre on August 28, 2016, at 00:30 UTC. The rocket, which weighed 3,277 kilograms (7,225 pounds), carried a functioning scramjet engine demonstrator.

The scramjets fired at Mach 6 and operated for five minutes at 55 seconds into the flight. The flight lasted around 300 seconds and splashed down about 320 kilometers (200 miles) from the space center in the Bay of Bengal.

Advanced Technology Vehicle - Test Results

Many interesting observations were made after the tests carried out with the Advanced Technology Vehicle were successful. The most valuable result was that a cost-efficient version of the scramjet engine was developed successfully. Here are the complete details of the results of the ISRO scramjet test:

  • During the test, combustion was maintained for 18 seconds in one engine and 14 seconds in the other.
  • The combustion resulted in a net positive thrust.
  • With the development of the Advanced Technology Vehicle, India became the fourth country to successfully develop air-breathing scramjet engine technology.
  • After these tests, India advanced in space technology and made a mark in the history of aerospace engineering.

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FAQs on Advanced Technology Vehicle

Q.1. What is an Advanced Technology Vehicle?

Advanced Technology Vehicle is a modified version of a scramjet engine. It was developed by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). It is a cost-effective, air-breathing space engine that produces supersonic combustion.

Q2. What was the ISRO scramjet test?

The ISRO scramjet test was conducted using the Advanced Technology Vehicle to examine the development of a dual-mode scramjet engine. The first test was conducted in 2010 as a demonstration of air-breathing propulsion technology, and the second test was conducted in 2016.

Q3. When were the India Advanced Technology Vehicle tests conducted?

Indian Space Research Organization conducted two tests with Advanced Technology Vehicle. The first test was conducted to demonstrate air-breathing propulsion technology in 2010, while the second test was conducted in 2016.

Q4. What was the result of the ISRO scramjet test?

The result of the ISRO scramjet test was that a cost-efficient space engine technology was developed. It also resulted in India becoming the fourth country to successfully develop air-breathing scramjet engine technology.