3-Phase Induction Machine
- Basically an induction motor (IM) is a type of asynchronous AC motor where power is supplied to the rotating device by means of electromagnetic induction.
- Technological development in the field has improved to where a 100 hp (74.6 kW) motor from 1976 takes the same volume as a 7.5 hp (5.5 kW) motor did in 1897. Currently, the most common induction motor is the cage rotor motor.
- In an induction motor is sometimes called a rotating transformer because the stator (stationary part) is essentially the primary side of the transformer and the rotor (rotating part) is the secondary side. Induction motors are widely used, especially polyphase induction motors, which are frequently used in industrial drives.
- Induction motors are now the preferred choice for industrial motors due to their rugged construction, absence of brushes (which are required in most DC motors) and the ability to control the speed of the motor.
- It is a single excited AC machine. Its stator winding is directly connected to AC source, whereas its rotor winding receives its energy from f stator by means of induction (i.e., transformer action).
Type of rotors Rotor
- Squirrel cage rotor
- Wound rotor
In the squirrel-cage rotor, the rotor winding consists of single copper or aluminium bars placed in the slots and short-circuited by end-rings on both sides of the rotor. Most of single phase induction motors have Squirrel-Cage rotor. One or 2 fans are attached to the shaft in the sides of rotor to cool the circuit.
- In the wound rotor, an insulated 3-phase winding similar to the stator winding wound for the same number of poles as stator, is placed in the rotor slots. The ends of the star-connected rotor winding are brought to three slip rings on the shaft so that a connection can be made to it for starting or speed control. It is usually for large 3 phase induction motors.
- Compared to squirrel cage rotors, wound rotor motors are expensive and require maintenance of the slip rings and brushes, so it is not so common in industry applications.
- Rotor has a winding the same as stator and the end of each phase is connected to a slip ring.
PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION
An AC current is applied in the stator armature which generates a flux in the stator magnetic circuit.This flux induces an emf in the conducting bars of rotor as they are “cut” by the
flux while the magnet is being moved (E = BVL (Faraday’s Law)),A current flows in the rotor circuit due to the induced emf, which in term produces a force, (F = BIL) can be changed to the torque as the output.
- In a 3-phase induction motor, the three-phase currents Ia, Ib and Ic, each of equal magnitude, but differing in phase by 120°. Each phase current produces a magnetic flux
and there is physical 120 °shift between each flux.
- The summation of the three ac fluxes results in a rotating flux, which turns with constant speed and has constant amplitude. Such a magnetic flux produced by balanced three phase currents flowing in thee-phase windings is called a rotating magnetic flux or rotating magnetic field (RMF).
- RMF rotates with a constant speed (Synchronous Speed). Existence of a RFM is an essential condition for the operation of an induction motor. If stator is energized by an ac current, RMF is generated due to the applied current to the stator winding.
- This flux produces magnetic field and the field revolves in the air gap between stator and rotor. So, the magnetic field induces a voltage in the short circuited bars of the rotor. This voltage drives current through the bars.
- The interaction of the rotating flux and the rotor current generates a force that drives the motor and a torque is developed consequently. The torque is proportional with the flux density and the rotor bar current (F=BLI).
- The motor speed is less than the synchronous speed. The direction of the rotation of the rotor is the same as the direction of the rotation of the revolving magnetic field in the air gap.
Per phase induced emf In stator winding, E1 = 4.44 Nlf1φkω1 volt
In rotor winding, E2 = 4.44 N2f2φkω2 volt
where and = Winding factors of stator and rotor winding
N1 = Number of turns in stator winding
N2 = Number of turns in rotor winding
f1 and f2 = Frequencies of supply in stator and rotor windings respectively.
Slip: The difference between the synchronous speed (Ns) and the actual rotor speed (Nr).
where, Ns = Synchronous speed
Nr = Rotor speed
Equivalent Circuit of an Induction Motor:
The energy is transferred from primary (stator) winding to secondary (rotor) winding entirely by induction therefore, induction motor is essentially a transformer. At standstill, the induction motor is actually a static transformer having its secondary (rotor) winding short-circuited.
Here, stator emf per phase
where, N1 = Number of stator turns per phase
φ = Flux per pole
= Stator winding factor
Rotor emf at standstill
where, = Effective stator turns per phase =
= Effective rotor turns per phase =
a = Reduction factor
sE2 = I2R2 + jI2sX2 or
Rotor equivalent circuit
Rotor Torque: The torque developed by the rotor of an induction motor is directly proportional to (a) rotor current l2 (b) stator flux per pole φ and (c) power factor of the rotor circuit cos φ2
∵ T ∝ φl2 cos φ2
But E ∝ φ
T ∝ E2l2 cos φ2
or T = kE2l2 cos φ2 where k is constant.
Rotor Frequency: In rotor the frequency of current and voltage must be same as the supply frequency
fr = sf
where, f = Supply frequency.
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